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SIMの英会話習得法

  ~ 「答え」のヒントは「問い」の中に その2~
  
     

 前回から新シリーズ「SIMの英会話習得法」が始まりました。


 第一回目は、「答え」のヒントは「問い」の中に、でしたね。

 ちょっと復習してみましょう。
 



 疑問詞のない疑問文に対する応答には、

 ひとつの法則がある、ということでした。


 たとえば、

 Is this your first visit to Japan? のように

 疑問詞のない疑問文に対する応答では、

 質問の文頭の語句 Is this が応答の締めくくりに

 it is となって必ず出てきます。


 ですから、質問の答としては、質問の文頭の語句を

 オウム返しに言えば自動的に成立することになります。


 要するに、答のヒントは問いの中にある、ということです。



 ごく簡単な例で説明しましょう。


  
     ※「…」はセンスグループの切れ目を表します。

 -------------------------------------------------


  <1> Is this…your coat?


         → Yes, it is.

   → No, it is not.



 
  <2> Did you come here … yesterday?

 
  → Yes, I did.

  → No, I did not.




<3> Did he come to school…the week before last?


   → Yes, he did.

→ No, he did not.


----------------------------------------------------------


 いかがでしょうか。

 このように、問いの中に答のヒントがあります。



 今日は、この続きです。

 この問いには何と答えますか。

 やってみてください。



 ----------------------------------------------------------


<4> Were you at the meeting…last week?
  

-----------------------------------------------------------


まず、疑問文が Were you となっていますので、

 答は、I was になって現れることをサッとつかみます。



 ですから、Yesの場合は…


        Yes, I was. です。


 Noの場合は… 

        No, I was not. となりますね。




 このように、疑問詞のない疑問文の最初の語句と、

 応答の Yes, No の後の語句が対応して現れる事実から、

これをSIMでは、「一致の法則」と呼ぶことにします。


 ただし、質問の中の Did は助動詞で、応答の中の did は

代動詞である場合もあるので、どんな場合でも文法的に

一致するものではありません。


したがって、この法則はあくまでも便宜上のものです。


疑問詞のない疑問文に対して応答するのに、必ずしも常に

このような答をしなければならないというものでは

 ありません。


しかし、基本としては、これが常にきちんとできるように

 なっていなければなりません。


 このことをおろそかにして、Yes, Noだけで済ます癖がついていると、

 日本語と英語の違いから来る、思わぬ落とし穴に落ちることが

 ありますよ。


        …この続きはまた次回。


                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-30 18:44 | SIMうんちく

No.240 オリジナル英文

-------------------------------------
'Perfect Storm' of Factors Driving Up Oil Prices, Say Experts
-------------------------------------
American motorists appear to grow more dismayed every time they go to a gasoline station.

The average price for a gallon of fuel rose nearly six cents in the past week alone, and is more than 50 cents higher than a year ago.

While consumers complain, others are pointing fingers.

For Ray Carbone, who heads the New York-based energy trading firm Paramount Options, the issue boils down to three words: supply and demand.

He notes that the world is consuming more fossil fuel each day, led by large, rapidly developing countries like China and India, at a time when global oil production is stagnant.

Despite rising oil consumption, the world's largest oil cartel, OPEC, has resisted calls to boost production.

But OPEC officials are offering no apologies, and scoff at the theory that inadequate supply to meet rising demand lies at the heart of today's elevated oil prices.

Who is right in this debate, the energy traders or OPEC?

They both are, according to Steve Hanke, professor of applied economics at Johns Hopkins University and senior fellow at the Washington-based Cato Institute. Hanke says, without a doubt, current demand for oil exceeds supply.

But other factors contribute as well.

Hanke says amid uncertainty and volatility in global stock markets, many investors have poured money into commodities such as oil.

This trend, combined with investor assumptions that oil prices will remain high, have helped boost prices further, which has in turn fed more investor speculation in the market.

Taken together, Hanke says, these and other factors have made for a "perfect storm" that relentlessly drives up oil prices with no end in sight.

What can be done about it?

Hanke says oil prices would moderate if supply were increased and world demand leveled off or subsided.

He says prices would also be lower if oil-producing nations reversed the trend towards state monopoly control of their petroleum sectors, if the U.S. government stopped stockpiling emergency oil for its Strategic Petroleum Reserve program, or if the U.S. dollar were to strengthen.

Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-28 16:39 | オリジナル英文

No.240 SIM音読用英文

-------------------------------------
'Perfect Storm' of Factors Driving Up Oil Prices, Say Experts
-------------------------------------

American motorists appear to grow more dismayed

every time they go to a gasoline station.

The average price

for a gallon of fuel

rose nearly six cents

in the past week alone,

and is more than 50 cents higher

than a year ago.

While consumers complain,

others are pointing fingers.

For Ray Carbone,

who heads the New York-based energy trading firm Paramount Options,

the issue boils down to three words:

supply and demand.


He notes that the world is consuming more fossil fuel each day,

led by large, rapidly developing countries

like China and India,

at a time when global oil production is stagnant.

Despite rising oil consumption,

the world's largest oil cartel, OPEC,

has resisted calls

to boost production.

But OPEC officials are offering no apologies,

and scoff at the theory

that inadequate supply

to meet rising demand

lies at the heart of today's elevated oil prices.

Who is right in this debate,

the energy traders or OPEC?

They both are,

according to Steve Hanke,

professor of applied economics

at Johns Hopkins University

and senior fellow

at the Washington-based Cato Institute.

Hanke says, without a doubt,

current demand for oil exceeds supply.

But other factors contribute as well.

Hanke says amid uncertainty and volatility

in global stock markets,

many investors have poured money

into commodities such as oil.

This trend,

combined with investor assumptions

that oil prices will remain high,

have helped boost prices further,

which has in turn fed more investor speculation

in the market.

Taken together, Hanke says,

these and other factors have made for a "perfect storm"

that relentlessly drives up oil prices

with no end in sight.

What can be done about it?

Hanke says oil prices would moderate

if supply were increased and world demand leveled off or subsided.

He says prices would also be lower

if oil-producing nations reversed the trend

towards state monopoly control

of their petroleum sectors,

if the U.S. government stopped

stockpiling emergency oil

for its Strategic Petroleum Reserve program,

or if the U.S. dollar were to strengthen.


Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-28 16:38 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの英会話習得法 その1

      ~ 「答え」のヒントは「問い」の中に ~
  
     

 前回まで、「SIMの発音習得法」シリーズでお話ししましたが、

 今日から数回にわたって「SIMの英会話習得法」というテーマで

 お話しします。
 

 第一回目は、「答え」のヒントは「問い」の中に、です。

 では、さっそくスタートしましょう。
 


 最近はテレビなどで、世界各国から来日した人々のインタビューを

 視聴する機会が多くなりました。


 その中で、たとえば、Is this your first visit to Japan?

 という質問に対して、

 Yes, it is. と省略されずに、きちんと対応されるのを見るのは

 気持のよいものです。


 そうなのです。


 私たちも、このような問いに対して、Yes だけで済ませては

 いけません。


 学校英語では、簡略化して Yes だけを言うことが

推奨されていますが、会話としては稚拙です。

 それに、これでは英語のトレーニングにはなりません。


 Yes, it is. と最後のSVまできちん言うこと、

 実はここに、英語上達の秘訣が隠されているんです。
 


 疑問詞のない疑問文に対する応答には、

 ひとつの法則があります。


 たとえば先の例文、

 Is this your first visit to Japan? のように

 疑問詞のない疑問文に対する応答では、

 質問の文頭の語句 Is this が応答の締めくくりに

 it is となって必ず出てくるんです。


 ですから、質問の答としては、質問の文頭の語句を

 オウム返しに言えば自動的に成立することになります。


 要するに、答のヒントは問いの中にある、ということです。



 ごく簡単な例で説明しましょう。

 
 -------------------------------------------------

  <1> Is this…your coat?


      → Yes, it is.

→ No, it is not.


 --------------------------------------------------


 
 Is this…your coat?(これは、あなたのコートですか)

 ときかれたら、冒頭の Is this をオウム返しに

 くっつけるだけです。


 すると Yes, it is. になります。

 Noだったら、No, it is not.ですね。



 
 ---------------------------------------------------

<2> Did you come here … yesterday?

 
  → Yes, I did.

  → No, I did not.


----------------------------------------------------



 Did you come here … yesterday?

 (あなたはここに来ましたか … 昨日)

 ですから、質問の Did you の部分が、答えの I did の部分に

対応して現れます。


ですから、「はい」なら、Yes, I did. であり、

 「いいえ」なら、No, I did not. ですね。



 もうひとつ例文です。


 ---------------------------------------------------------

<3> Did he come to school…the week before last?


   → Yes, he did.

→ No, he did not.

----------------------------------------------------------


 質問の Did が助動詞であるのに対して、答えの he did の didは、

came の代りをする代動詞です。


したがって、Did と did は文法上は同じものではありませんが、

外形上同じなので、Did が応答の中で did になって現れると

考えておけば便利です。


ちなみに、No, he did not.の did は助動詞です。


      …この続きはまた次回。



                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-23 14:21 | SIMうんちく

No.239 オリジナル英文

------------------------------------
Virginia Tech Marks One-Year Anniversary of Campus Shooting
------------------------------------
Thousands gathered at Virginia Polytechnic Institute in remembrance of the university students and staff who perished during a gun rampage committed by a mentally unstable pupil, Seung-Hui Cho, a U.S. resident from South Korea.

One by one, names of the victims were read, along with tributes to the dead.

Virginia Tech President Charles Steger said the university has struggled to recover from the tragedy - a process that continues to this day.

"It has been a difficult road; it has been a hard journey, indeed.

It began with shock and trauma and a flood of emotions.

And in the ensuing days and weeks and months, we’ve searched for answers.

We’ve searched for meaning in what is incomprehensible.

What is at the heart of this day is not public.

Rather, it is a very private and profound loss.

We know intently what the people we lost meant to us, and we are more keenly aware of how they touched and changed our lives."

Speaking afterwards, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine said he continues to feel sorrow over the events of a year ago, as well as pride and admiration for the Virginia Tech community as it endeavors to heal and continue its mission.

Although far from commonplace, horrific school shootings have periodically marred America's educational landscape over the years.

In 1999, two Colorado high school students killed 13 people and wounded 24 others before committing suicide.

This past February, a gunman killed five people and wounded 18 others at Northern Illinois University.

In light of the violence, many schools have reviewed security measures and placed additional emphasis on programs to identify and counsel students who may be struggling with psychological disorders.

In addition, a few university students have started a campaign urging that students and faculty be permitted to bring firearms on campus for self-defense.

Few, if any, school administrators have endorsed the idea.

Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-22 15:30 | オリジナル英文

No.239 SIM音読用英文

-------------------------------------
Virginia Tech Marks One-Year Anniversary of Campus Shooting
-------------------------------------

Thousands gathered

at Virginia Polytechnic Institute

in remembrance of the university students and staff

who perished during a gun rampage

committed by a mentally unstable pupil, Seung-Hui Cho,

a U.S. resident from South Korea.

One by one, names of the victims were read,

along with tributes to the dead.

Virginia Tech President Charles Steger said

the university has struggled

to recover from the tragedy

- a process that continues to this day.

"It has been a difficult road;

it has been a hard journey, indeed.

It began with shock and trauma

and a flood of emotions.

And in the ensuing days and weeks and months,

we've searched for answers.

We've searched for meaning

in what is incomprehensible.

What is at the heart of this day

is not public.

Rather, it is a very private and profound loss.

We know intently

what the people we lost meant to us,

and we are more keenly aware

of how they touched and changed our lives."

Speaking afterwards, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine said

he continues to feel sorrow

over the events of a year ago,

as well as pride and admiration

for the Virginia Tech community

as it endeavors

to heal and continue its mission.

Although far from commonplace,

horrific school shootings have periodically marred

America's educational landscape

over the years.

In 1999, two Colorado high school students

killed 13 people and wounded 24 others

before committing suicide.

This past February, a gunman killed five people and wounded 18 others

at Northern Illinois University.

In light of the violence,

many schools have reviewed security measures

and placed additional emphasis

on programs

to identify and counsel students

who may be struggling

with psychological disorders.

In addition, a few university students have started a campaign

urging that students and faculty be permitted

to bring firearms on campus

for self-defense.

Few, if any, school administrators have endorsed the idea.


Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-22 15:27 | SIM音読用英文

No.238 オリジナル英文

-------------------------------------
Condoleezza Rice Downplays Speculation on Vice Presidential Run
-------------------------------------
Rice, who was President Bush's national security adviser before becoming secretary of state, was seen by some political analysts two years ago as a potential Republican presidential candidate for 2008.

She consistently dismissed the idea of having presidential ambitions, and now - with the Republican nomination assured for Senator McCain - she is downplaying talk that she might be interested in being the party's vice presidential nominee.

The latest flurry of speculation about Rice was spurred by a weekend assertion by a Republican political operative, Dan Senor, that Rice has been "actively campaigning" for the second spot on the Republican ticket.

Senor, the former spokesman for the U.S. provisional authority in Iraq, told a television interview show Rice has promoted her interest in running by, among other things, recently meeting privately with a conservative Republican policy group.

State Department Spokesman Sean McCormack tried to quash the speculation Monday, saying Rice has made her disinterest in being Vice President clear on many occasions.

Rice took a question on the issue at a joint news conference Tuesday with the foreign ministers of Canada and Mexico.

She heaped praise on Senator McCain but insisted she has no plans to run with him.

"Senator McCain is an extraordinary American, a really outstanding leader, and obviously a great patriot.

That said, I'm going back to Stanford, back to California, west of the Mississippi.

I very much look forward to watching this campaign and voting as a voter."

Rice was a top administrator at Stanford University and has stressed that she is only technically on leave from the prestigious California school.

Senator McCain for his part has been complimentary of Rice, calling her overall record very meritorious.

But he said Sunday that if Rice is sending signals that she wants to be his running mate, he has missed them.

David Gollust, VOA News, the State Department
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-17 10:59 | オリジナル英文

No.238 SIM音読用英文

-------------------------------------
Condoleezza Rice Downplays Speculation on Vice Presidential Run
-------------------------------------

Rice, who was President Bush's national security adviser

before becoming secretary of state,

was seen

by some political analysts two years ago

as a potential Republican presidential candidate for 2008.

She consistently dismissed the idea

of having presidential ambitions,

and now - with the Republican nomination assured

for Senator McCain -

she is downplaying talk

that she might be interested

in being the party's vice presidential nominee.

The latest flurry of speculation about Rice

was spurred

by a weekend assertion

by a Republican political operative, Dan Senor,

that Rice has been "actively campaigning"

for the second spot on the Republican ticket.

Senor, the former spokesman

for the U.S. provisional authority in Iraq,

told a television interview show

Rice has promoted her interest in running

by, among other things, recently meeting privately

with a conservative Republican policy group.

State Department Spokesman Sean McCormack

tried to quash the speculation Monday,

saying Rice has made her disinterest in being Vice President clear

on many occasions.

Rice took a question on the issue

at a joint news conference Tuesday

with the foreign ministers

of Canada and Mexico.

She heaped praise

on Senator McCain

but insisted she has no plans

to run with him.

"Senator McCain is an extraordinary American,

a really outstanding leader,

and obviously a great patriot.

That said, I'm going back to Stanford,

back to California, west of the Mississippi.

I very much look forward

to watching this campaign

and voting as a voter."

Rice was a top administrator

at Stanford University

and has stressed

that she is only technically on leave

from the prestigious California school.

Senator McCain for his part has been complimentary of Rice,

calling her overall record very meritorious.

But he said Sunday

that if Rice is sending signals

that she wants to be his running mate,

he has missed them.


David Gollust, VOA News, the State Department
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-17 10:58 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの発音習得法 その15

~ 子音と母音の連結――Linking ~
  
     

「SIMの発音習得法」、その15回目です。

 
 
 前回は「SIM音読と音節リズムの法則」についてお話ししました。

 例によって、ちょっと復習しましょう。



 英文はいくつかのセンスグループ(意味のまとまり)からできています。


 そのセンスグループとは、いくつかの単語が集まってできた phrase

ですから、個々の単語の拍数を合計し、それに従って全体を発音して

 いけばよい、ということでした。



 例えば、 “in order to take off”
 
 これは、6つの単語が寄り集まって、ひとつの意味のある単位を

形成しています。


 そして、これら5つの単語の音節の合計は6つですから、

in order to take off は全体を6拍のリズムで

読まなければならない、ということでした。


 つまり、この phrase 全体が、ひとつの単語で

 あるかのようになめらかにリズムをつけて

 発音するようにします。

  
 
 …さて、今日はこの続きです。


 今までご説明したことに関連するお話をします。

 それは、linking ということです。
 


 ひとつひとつの単語の発音を正しく習得したつもりでも、

 実際にネイティブスピーカーが話すことばを、どうしても

 聞き取ることができない場合があります。


 これは、個々の単語が linking を起こしていることに原因が

 あります。


 この linkingについての知識がないと、聞くことも話すことも

 なかなか上達しません。


 先ほど述べたように、いくつかの単語が集まった phrase は、

 それぞれの単語が切り離して発音されるのではなく、

 あたかも全体で一つの単語であるかのように発音されます。


 例えば in order to take offというセンスグループは、

 in / order / to / take / off、つまり、イン オーダー ツゥー

 テイク オフと聞こえることはあまりありません。


 実際には、イノーダーツゥーテイコフと聞こえることが多いのです。

 (カタカナ表記なので近似値です)


 さて、ここで重大な事実に気づかされます。


 それは in order to take offを続けて発音した場合、

 先行の単語の語尾が子音で、後続の単語の語頭が母音である場合、

 子音と母音が連結して、つまりlinkingを起こして、新たに

 別の音を生じるという事実です。


 具体的には、inとorder、takeとoffの語尾、語頭が連結することに

 よってこのことが生じているのです。


 したがって、イン/オーダーは、イノーダーであり、

 テイク/オフは、テイコフとなっているのですね。


      …この続きはまた次回。


                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-09 18:12 | SIMうんちく

No.237 オリジナル英文

-------------------------------------
IOC Officials Urge China to Open Internet During Olympics
-------------------------------------
During meetings this week in Beijing a top-ranking International Olympic Committee official told Beijing organizers that restricting access to the Internet during the games would reflect poorly on the host nation.

Kevan Gosper, vice chairman of the IOC coordinating commission, said the Olympic body is concerned that journalists will not be able to operate as they have at previous games.

He says that China has an obligation to provide full Internet access to the 30,000 journalists expected to be in Beijing for the games.

China regularly blocks access to Internet sites that officials think portray China in a negative light.

VOA is among many organizations whose Web sites are usually not accessible in mainland China, as are on-line information site Wikipedia and various human rights groups.

Fan Ho-tsai is chairwoman of the Hong Kong Journalist's Association.

She is hopeful that China will comply with the IOC's request, but says that given Beijing's history of restricting controversial information, it may prove difficult.

Most recently, Chinese authorities restricted several Internet sites following violent riots in Tibet.

Protests began there last month on the anniversary of a 1959 uprising against Chinese rule.

Chinese officials say 19 people died, including one policeman.

But Tibetans say the numbers are much higher and that many were killed by Chinese security forces.

Fan says organizations in Beijing are under pressure because of criticism by several countries and organizations over human rights issues.

China loosened restrictions on foreign media earlier this year in light of the coming games.

But open Internet access is still not available.

China's Foreign Ministry acknowledges that China bans some Internet content, but has declined to say if access will be unrestricted for journalists during the games.


Naomi Martig, VOA News, Hong Kong
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-04-09 18:03 | オリジナル英文