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SIMの発音習得法 その13

           ~ 具体例のまとめ ~



 新シリーズ「SIMの発音習得法」、その13回目です。

 
 前回は、≪音節リズムの法則≫に基づいた

 実際の発音の例ということで、

 「動詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える」、というお話でした。


 ちょっと復習してみましょう。



  -------------------------------------

  run → runs

drive  → drives

-------------------------------------


 動詞に三人称単数現在のsがついています。


 この2つの単語はそれぞれの原形に、esではなく

 sをつけたものですが、どちらもリズムの数は増えません。


 ですから、両方とも1拍のまま、ということでしたね。



 次の2例です。


  --------------------------------------------

  promise → promises

   dramatize → dramatizes

---------------------------------------------


promise(約束する)はもちろん2拍の動詞ですね。

 これに三人称単数現在のsがつくと promises の e が生きて

3拍になります。


dramatize(脚色する)も同じように拍が増えます。


 s が付いて dramatizes になると e が生きて、

 3拍から4拍に拍数が変化します。



 つまり、語尾の音の性質によって、三単現の s をつけたときに、

発音上紛らわしいときには、語尾の e が母音になって現れるのです。



 …ここまでが、前回です。

 いかがですか。


 拍数が変化するものと変化しないものがあるので、

 ここをきっちり意識して、区別しなければなりません。
 

 では最後に、具体例をまとめて書いておきますので、

 確認しておいてください。


---------------------------------------------------------------


 ◆ 複数形で拍数が変化しない名詞(1)と、一拍増える名詞(2)


(1)books bats  bags balls continents riddles

  circles gloves knives wives flies fries

candies families


(2)dishes watches sandwiches stitches smashes

languages oranges judges noises hinges

privileges axes taxes




 ◆ 三単現で拍数が変化しない動詞(3)と、一拍増える動詞(4)


 (3)runs cuts sees looks notes adapts

   plots executes drives loves lives gives


(4)raises praises exercises promises ceases

memorizes catches snatches perches washes



◆ 過去形で拍数が変化しない動詞(5)と、一拍増える動詞(6)


 (5)looked asked worked perched marched

    smashed realized normalized centralized


(6)waited limited expected wanted corrected


------------------------------------------------------------------


 
 「SIMの発音習得法」シリーズの「語尾の変化をリズムで捉える」は

 一応これで終わります。


 
 来週は、「SIM音読と音節リズムの法則」ということで

 お話する予定です。




      …この続きはまた次回。



                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-26 16:38 | SIMうんちく

No.235 オリジナル英文

-------------------------------------
Hollywood Soccer Mom Plans TV Reality Show
-------------------------------------
Kanter is not a typical American housewife.

The neighborhood where she lives is the exclusive seaside community of Malibu.

And when she is not taking her children to soccer games, she is an actress and film producer.

Kanter began to pay attention to soccer while watching her 11-year-old son and nine-year-old daughter playing in a youth league.

Last year, she got a glimpse of the sport's worldwide impact when she attended a conference in Dubai on the business of soccer.

With the proliferation of reality shows on American television, she decided viewers would love one about the sport.

"I'm at home with my nine and 11-year-old, and there are really not many things that they like to watch on TV.

So I thought, this is an opportunity to develop a show for children and their families."

The show would have teams of young people involved in competitions in various countries.

She says the diversity of the teams and players will appeal to viewers.

"There's always someone you can relate to.

And you wanna get behind and root for them and push for them.

And that's what We're gonna do.

We're gonna show you kids from around the world."

There is an irony surrounding soccer in the United States, where millions of youngsters play the game.

In fact, it is so common that mothers who ferry their children to practices and games are called "soccer moms."

But professional soccer ranks low in popularity on the list of televised sports, and its biggest fans are immigrants.

The proposed show has celebrity backers and advisors, including a well-known television host and famous movie producer.

A Hollywood restaurateur named Dan Tana is also on board with the project.

He defected in 1953 from communist Yugoslavia, where he played for the Red Star Belgrade team.

He remains a big soccer promoter, and is a board member of the team and an official with the Serbian Football Association.

Kanter says soccer is immensely popular in Eastern Europe and Asia, in fact, nearly everywhere, except the United States.

"It's huge in the Middle East, South America, Africa, Europe all over, Russia.

So it's an international sport."

She says with millions of American youngsters already playing, it is only a matter of time before soccer is just as popular in this country.

Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angeles


ニューズウィーク
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-24 17:13 | オリジナル英文

No.235 SIM音読用英文

-------------------------------------
Hollywood Soccer Mom Plans TV Reality Show
-------------------------------------

Kanter is not a typical American housewife.

The neighborhood where she lives

is the exclusive seaside community of Malibu.

And when she is not taking her children

to soccer games,

she is an actress and film producer.

Kanter began to pay attention to soccer

while watching

her 11-year-old son and nine-year-old daughter

playing in a youth league.

Last year, she got a glimpse

of the sport's worldwide impact

when she attended a conference in Dubai

on the business of soccer.

With the proliferation of reality shows

on American television,

she decided viewers would love one

about the sport.

"I'm at home

with my nine and 11-year-old,

and there are really not many things

that they like to watch on TV.

So I thought, this is an opportunity

to develop a show

for children and their families."

The show would have teams

of young people

involved in competitions

in various countries.

She says the diversity

of the teams and players

will appeal to viewers.

"There's always someone

you can relate to.

And you wanna get behind

and root for them and push for them.

And that's what We're gonna do.

We're gonna show you kids

from around the world."

There is an irony

surrounding soccer

in the United States,

where millions of youngsters play the game.

In fact, it is so common

that mothers

who ferry their children

to practices and games

are called "soccer moms."

But professional soccer ranks low in popularity

on the list of televised sports,

and its biggest fans are immigrants.

The proposed show has celebrity backers and advisors,

including a well-known television host and famous movie producer.

A Hollywood restaurateur

named Dan Tana

is also on board

with the project.

He defected in 1953

from communist Yugoslavia,

where he played

for the Red Star Belgrade team.

He remains a big soccer promoter,

and is a board member of the team

and an official

with the Serbian Football Association.

Kanter says soccer is immensely popular

in Eastern Europe and Asia,

in fact, nearly everywhere,

except the United States.

"It's huge

in the Middle East, South America, Africa, Europe all over, Russia.

So it's an international sport."

She says with millions of American youngsters

already playing,

it is only a matter of time

before soccer is just as popular

in this country.


Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angeles
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-24 17:11 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの発音習得法 その12

    ~ 具体例(3)動詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える ~
  
     

 新シリーズ「SIMの発音習得法」、その12回目です。

 
 前回は、≪音節リズムの法則≫に基づいた

 実際の発音の例ということで、

 「名詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える」、というお話でした。


 ちょっと復習してみましょう。

 
   -----------------------

       knives

   -----------------------


 knife は音節がひとつで1拍で発音する単語です。

 これが複数形になると f が v に変わって、

 knives になります。


 その理由は、複数の s の音が、原則として有声音の

 [-z]ですから、その影響で無声音の f が有声音の v に

 変化する、ということでしたね。

 しかし、s がついても1拍であることは変わりません。



 次は、languages です。


-----------------------------

languages

-----------------------------


 単数形は、languageです。

 最後の e は実際には発音しませんので、2音節の2拍です。

 このlanguageに、複数のsがつくと3拍になります。


 これはどうしてそうなるかというと、languageの語尾の音が、

 複数の s[-z]をつけた場合に、互いによく似ていて紛らわしく、

 単数か複数かの区別がつきにくいので、

 最後の e が母音になって現れるものだ、ということでした。


   …前回はここまで。




 今日は、ここから(↓)です。


 前回は、名詞の語尾の変化をリズムの数で捉える、

 というお話でしたが、今日は動詞です。

 動詞の語尾の変化をリズムの数で捉えるとどうなるか、

 ということです。



 まず、下記の2つの例を見てみましょう。


  --------------------------------------------

  run → runs drive  → drives

---------------------------------------------


 動詞に三人称単数現在のsがつきました。


 この2つの単語はそれぞれの原形に、esではなく

 sをつけたものですが、どちらもリズムの数は増えません。


 両方とも1拍のままですね。



 では、次の2例はどうでしょう。


  --------------------------------------------

  promise → promises

   dramatize → dramatizes

---------------------------------------------


promise(約束する)はもちろん2拍の動詞ですね。

 これに三人称単数現在のsがつくと promises の e が生きて

3拍になります。


dramatize(脚色する)も同じように拍が増えます。


 s が付いて dramatizes になると e が生きて、

 3拍から4拍に拍数が変化します。



 つまり、語尾の音の性質によって、三単現の s をつけたときに、

発音上紛らわしいときには、語尾の e が母音になって現れるのです。


これは名詞の場合と全く同じですね。




      …この続きはまた次回。



                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-19 15:18 | SIMうんちく

No.234 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Washington State Manufacturer Embraces Blu-Ray Technology
--------------------------------------
Last year, Erick Hansen of Blu-ray Technologies set up an independent plant in Spokane, Washington, to manufacture disks in two high definition formats, Blu-ray and HD DVD.

Both Blu-ray and HD DVD encode data on high-density disks using a violet-blue laser.

But Hansen says Blu-ray disks hold more information, and retrieve it faster.

"We have an analogy that we use at our facility.

We basically say, if you're a banker and you can get your money faster to a client without loss, without any problems, you're basically going to win the loan war.

That's what Blu-ray does and that's what it did, and that's why anybody that really actually understood the technology knew that Blu-ray would be the winner in the end."

Hansen was a pioneer in the DVD business, and still produces DVDs and compact disks.

In the 1990s, he manufactured them outside Los Angeles, but says costs were high, so in 2006 he chose the city of Spokane in Washington State for his new plant.

Costs are much lower there for electrical power and workers' compensation insurance, which covers employees injured on the job.

He also keeps his expenses down by working with the environment and not against it.

The disk-molding machines generate heat, which he says he puts to use.

"We take that excess heat, redirect it to back up into the first, second and third floors of the building, it's a four story building, and heat the rest of our building with the waste energy that we create."

He says new technologies are creating business opportunities for entrepreneurs like him.

And he says as American companies learn to keep their costs down, they can manufacture at home, instead of outsourcing to countries like China.

Manufacturers of Blu-ray disks and equipment must still persuade consumers to invest in high definition television sets and video players.

That battle continues, while new technology such as high-speed digital downloads over the Internet may make even Blu-ray disks obsolete someday.

Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angeles
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-19 15:13 | オリジナル英文

No.234 SIM音読用英文

------------------------------------
Washington State Manufacturer Embraces Blu-Ray Technology
------------------------------------

Last year, Erick Hansen

of Blu-ray Technologies

set up an independent plant

in Spokane, Washington,

to manufacture disks

in two high definition formats, Blu-ray and HD DVD.

Both Blu-ray and HD DVD encode data

on high-density disks

using a violet-blue laser.

But Hansen says Blu-ray disks hold more information

and retrieve it faster.

"We have an analogy

that we use at our facility.

We basically say,

if you're a banker and you can get your money faster to a client

without loss, without any problems,

you're basically going to win the loan war.

That's what Blu-ray does and that's what it did,

and that's why anybody

that really actually understood the technology

knew that Blu-ray would be the winner

in the end."

Hansen was a pioneer

in the DVD business,

and still produces DVDs and compact disks.

In the 1990s, he manufactured them

outside Los Angeles,

but says costs were high,

so in 2006 he chose

the city of Spokane in Washington State

for his new plant.

Costs are much lower there

for electrical power and workers' compensation insurance,

which covers employees

injured on the job.

He also keeps his expenses down

by working with the environment

and not against it.

The disk-molding machines generate heat,

which he says he puts to use.

"We take that excess heat,

redirect it to back up

into the first, second and third floors of the building,

it's a four story building,

and heat the rest of our building

with the waste energy

that we create."

He says new technologies are creating business opportunities

for entrepreneurs like him.

And he says as American companies learn

to keep their costs down,

they can manufacture at home,

instead of outsourcing

to countries like China.

Manufacturers of Blu-ray disks and equipment

must still persuade consumers

to invest in high definition television sets and video players.

That battle continues,

while new technology

such as high-speed digital downloads

over the Internet

may make even Blu-ray disks obsolete someday.


Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angeles
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-19 15:12 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの発音習得法 その11

    ~ 具体例(2)名詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える ~
  
     

 新シリーズ「SIMの発音習得法」、まだまだ続きます。

 
 前回は、≪音節リズムの法則≫に基づいた

 実際の発音の例ということで、

 「名詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える」、というお話でした。


 ちょっと復習してみましょう。



 ------------------------

   books

------------------------



 bookは音節がひとつの1音節の単語ですが、

 これが複数形の books になっても母音は増えません。

 つまり1拍のままです。


 子音のsが付くだけなので、音節は増えないんですね。

 
 ですから、これは意識して、

 1拍にまとめるように発音する必要があります。




 次の単語です。


  -----------------------

    watches

-----------------------


books の場合と違い、watchesは、拍数が増えます。


 単数形の watchは、音節がひとつなので1拍ですが、

 複数になって es[-iz]がつくと、

 母音がひとつ増えて2拍になるんですね。

 

 1拍か2拍かわからないような中途半端な発音ではなく、

 充分に2拍分の時間をとって発音しなければなりません。



 今日は、この続きです。

 下の単語を見てください。

 
   -----------------------

       knives

   -----------------------


 はい。 knivesはもちろん、knifeの複数形ですね。


 fがvに変わる理由は、複数のsの音が、原則として有声音の

 [-z]ですから、その影響で無声音のfが有声音のvに

 変化するんです。


 これは文字の上でそうなる前に、

 人間の口から出る音が自然にそうなるので、

 スペリングにもこのように変化が現れるんです。



 では、次。いってみましょう。


-----------------------------

languages

-----------------------------


 languagesの単数形は、languageで2音節です。


 languageを見ると、a、ua、eと母音が3つあるように見えますが、

 最後のeは発音されないので2音節です。


 したがって音節リズムは2拍になります。


 ちなみに、最後のeが発音されないケースは無数にあります。

 たとえば、take、wife、drive、等々…。

 音節は、見た目ではわからない場合がある、ということですね。


 さて、このlanguageに、複数のsがつくと3音節になり、

 3拍のリズムになります。


 lan-gua-ges ですね。

 タン、タン、タンと、3拍分の時間を充分取って

 発音しなければなりません。


 これはどうしてそうなるかというと、languageの語尾の音が、

 複数のs[-z]をつけた場合に、互いによく似ていて紛らわしく、

 単数か複数かの区別がつきにくいので、

 最後のeが母音になって現れるものです。


 これも、文字の上でそうなるのではなく、

 人間の口から発音される時の現実の音が、自然にそうなるのです。



 
 いかがでしょうか?


 ちょっとまとめてみますと、複数のsをつけるということは

 [-z]または、[-s]、つまり子音が加わるだけですから、

 原則としてはリズムの数は増えません。


 ところが、語尾がge, seで終わっている単語では、

 eが母音になって現れる、という例外があるんですね。


 oranges, noisesなども同じですね。





      …この続きはまた次回。



                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-12 15:40 | SIMうんちく

No.233 オリジナル英文

-------------------------------------
Britain Set to Introduce Controversial Compulsory ID Cards
-------------------------------------
The British government is set to begin issuing compulsory national identification cards later this year.

During a speech in London, Home Secretary Jacqui Smith explained why.

"As a government we have a duty to ensure that the national identity scheme supports our national security and that it provides a robust defense against those who seek to use false identity to mask criminal or terrorist activity."

Non-European foreigners will have to provide fingerprints and personal data for the ID cards by November.

In 2009, migrants from other European countries and British nationals in certain security risk jobs, such as airline staff and baggage handlers will also be required to sign up for the new ID cards.

By 2017 the government hopes to have most Britons enrolled in the plan, but new legislation will be required to make the ID cards compulsory.

Smith repeated the government's argument that having national ID cards and an accompanying data base will protect citizens against identity theft, control illegal immigration, increase public security and guard against terrorism.

"Many of the terrorists convicted in recent years have routinely used multiple passports, bank accounts and other forms of identity."

Opponents of the plan say it’s too costly, will not enhance security and will only erode civil liberties.

They also question the government's ability to handle the personal data securely, citing recent high profile losses of sensitive personal information, including people's banking details.

Other European countries have national identification-card systems.

In some countries such as Germany, national ID cards are compulsory, while in others such as France they are widely used, but not mandatory.

The United States has no national ID cards, but drivers' licenses are so widely used as every day identification that they are almost an unofficial national photo ID.

Sonja Pace, VOA News, London
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-12 15:34 | オリジナル英文

No.233 SIM音読用英文

-------------------------------------
Britain Set to Introduce Controversial Compulsory ID Cards
-------------------------------------

The British government is set to begin issuing

compulsory national identification cards

later this year.

During a speech in London,

Home Secretary Jacqui Smith explained why.

"As a government we have a duty

to ensure

that the national identity scheme supports our national security

and that it provides a robust defense

against those

who seek to use false identity

to mask criminal or terrorist activity."

Non-European foreigners will have to provide

fingerprints and personal data

for the ID cards by November.

In 2009, migrants from other European countries and British nationals

in certain security risk jobs,

such as airline staff and baggage handlers

will also be required to sign up

for the new ID cards.

By 2017

the government hopes

to have most Britons enrolled in the plan,

but new legislation will be required

to make the ID cards compulsory.

Smith repeated the government's argument

that having national ID cards and an accompanying data base

will protect citizens

against identity theft,

control illegal immigration, increase public security

and guard against terrorism.

"Many of the terrorists

convicted in recent years

have routinely used

multiple passports, bank accounts and other forms of identity."

Opponents of the plan say

it's too costly, will not enhance security

and will only erode civil liberties.

They also question the government's ability

to handle the personal data securely,

citing recent high profile losses

of sensitive personal information,

including people's banking details.

Other European countries have

national identification-card systems.

In some countries such as Germany,

national ID cards are compulsory,

while in others such as France

they are widely used, but not mandatory.

The United States has no national ID cards,

but drivers' licenses are so widely used

as every day identification

that they are almost an unofficial national photo ID.


Sonja Pace, VOA News, London. (06 March 2008)
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-12 15:33 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの発音習得法 その10

    ~ 具体例(1)名詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える ~
  
     

 新シリーズ「SIMの発音習得法」ですが、

 今まで9回にわたって≪音節リズムの法則≫を中心に、

 発音の基本的なお話をしました。


 
 今日から、数回にわたって具体例をお話ししましょう。


 普段何げなく発音している単語も、

 ≪音節リズムの法則≫を意識して発音することが大切だ、

 ということなんですね。


 リズムを意識することで、発音がさらにクリアーになり、

 よりしっかりしたものになるからです。



 第一回目は、「名詞の語尾の変化をリズムで捉える」です。

 さっそく、いってみましょう。



 ではまず、次の単語を見てください。


 ------------------------

   books

------------------------


はい、bookの複数形ですね。


 bookは音節がひとつの1音節の単語ですが、

 これが複数形の books になっても母音は増えません。

 つまり1拍のままなんです。


 「そんなの当然じゃないか」

 …とおっしゃるかもしれません。


 でも実際には、案外「ブックス」(buksu)と

 2拍になってしまう人がいるんです。

 
 ですから、これは意識して、

 1拍にまとめるように発音する必要があります。




 次の単語です。


  -----------------------

    watches

-----------------------


books の場合と違い、watchesは、拍数が増えます。


 単数形の watchは、音節がひとつなので1拍ですが、

 複数になって es[-iz]がつくと、

 母音がひとつ増えて2拍になるんですね。

 
 このことも皆さんは、とうにご承知でしょうが、

 大切なのは、この場合、2拍であることを意識して発音する、

 ということなんです。


 1拍か2拍かわからないような中途半端な発音ではなく、

 充分に2拍分の時間をとって発音しなければなりません。


 このように「リズムを意識して発音する」ということが、

 通じる発音のためには、とても大切なんですね。 



      …この続きはまた次回。


                … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2008-03-06 11:50 | SIMうんちく