<   2007年 10月 ( 15 )   > この月の画像一覧

SIMの英文法

~ 関係代名詞は怖くない! その2 ~


 今日は、関係代名詞は怖くない、その2です。

 さっそく、前回の復習をしましょう。


 関係代名詞を難しいと思ってしまう理由は、学校英語にある

 と、前回書きました。


 結局、あの悪しき「返り読み」が、関係代名詞の理解を

 非常に困難にしているんです。
 


 そもそも、関係代名詞は文中で、二つの働きをしており、

 一つは「関係詞」としての働き、

 そしてもう一つは「代名詞」としての働き、

 ということでしたね。


 ところが、学校英語の「返り読み」では、この二つのうち

 関係詞としての働きに重点を置いて、「~するところの」

 と訳します。


 これは、代名詞としての働きを完全に無視しています。

  
 しかし、関係代名詞は、関係詞としての働きよりも

 代名詞としての働きの方が重要なんです。


 そして、「関係代名詞は代名詞だ」と考えるほうがはるかに

 易しいのだ、ということでした。


 …前回は、ここまででした。



 今日は例文を使って、そのことをご説明しましょう。


---------------------------------------------------------

  A baby boy was playing with a rattle beside

an armchair in which his mother was sitting.

----------------------------------------------------------


 文頭からセンスグループごとに読んでみましょう。


 はい、まず、A baby boy was playing なので、男の子が遊ん

 でいた、ですね。

 with a rattle ですので、ガラガラで、です。

 
 問題はその後です。


 日本人は、次の beside an armchair のあとに、in which が

 見えると、ついつい学校英語の「返り読み」のクセが出て

 しまいます。


 すなわち、beside an armchair を訳さずに置いておき、

 in which 以下の in which his mother was sitting.を

「その母親が座っているところの」と訳して、その前の

 beside an armchair と関係づけて、

「その母親が座っているところの肘掛け椅子のそばで」と

 翻訳してしまうのです。


 これは、非常に複雑な作業になり、読むスピードも

 当然落ちます。



 これに対して、SIM同時通訳方式では、すごく簡単です。


   A baby boy was playing (男の子が遊んでいた)

   with a rattle     (ガラガラで)

   beside an armchair   (肘掛け椅子のそばで)


 ここまで訳したら、

 SIM方式では、whichは代名詞として捉えますから、

 whichが何の代わりをしているのか瞬間的に考えます。


 代名詞は原則として直前の名詞の代わりをしていますから、

 which = an armchair だろうと見当をつけます。


 したがって、in which = in the armchair = in it

 であることが分かりますので、

 in which を、その中に、と訳すのです。


 最後に、his mother was sitting in it. ですから

 彼のお母さんが座っている、と訳し終わります。 


 以上を整理してみましょう。


---------------------------------------------------------


 A baby boy was playing(男の子が遊んでいた)

  with a rattle    (ガラガラで)

   beside an armchair (肘掛け椅子のそばで)

    in which      (その中に)

     his mother was sitting.(彼のお母さんが座っている)

----------------------------------------------------------


 いかがでしょうか?

 非常に平明にすっきりと理解できると思いませんか? 


 では、続きは、また来週!


           … お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-31 17:05 | SIMうんちく

No.216 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
China's Economy Surges Ahead Despite Attempts to Curb Overheating, Inflation
----------------------------------------
China's juggernaut economy has grown by 11.5 percent so far this year, defying government efforts to slow the rapid expansion.The continued growth has put China on track to surpass Germany as the world's third largest economy, by as early as December.

Growth was fueled by foreign trade that rose by 23 percent, and investment in fixed assets, such as factories and roads, which were up by nearly 26 percent.

The government has instituted numerous changes in an attempt to rein in the economy, including tightening credit and allowing a slow rise in the value of the currency. But growth continues to remain in the 11 percent range, extremely high by world standards.

Nevertheless, a spokesman for the National Bureau of Statistics, Li Xiaochao, maintained Thursday that the government's efforts had brought the economy under control.He says due to macroeconomic control, the government has changed the situation, from an economy that is overheating, to one of "speedy growth."

Consumer prices, a key inflation indicator, were up by 6.2 percent in September. Overall inflation for the first three-quarters was 4.1 percent - significantly above the government's target of three percent.

Food prices have increased by more than 10 percent so far this year, with meat and poultry up by 29 percent - a warning signal that inflation could get out of control. The public is already complaining about a large increase in the price of pork, a basic part of the Chinese diet.

On a brighter note, Li says incomes have risen more than 13 percent in the cities and 14 percent in the countryside, and companies are more profitable.But he acknowledged that the economy still faces serious challenges.

He says institutional, systematic, and structural problems in economic performance continue, including rapid economic growth, price rises, high pressure on energy consumption, the need to reduce pollution, and the uncertainty of the world economy.

Chinese officials have tried and failed to tighten the money supply to prevent overheating and speculative investment.They say they want to reduce the risk of borrowers defaulting on loans, by curbing credit and restricting land use.

However, even though interest rates have been raised five times this year and bank reserve requirements eight times, government figures showed cash in circulation was up by 13 percent, and outstanding loans increased 19 percent.

China's politically sensitive trade surplus was also up by $75 billion for the period, to $185 billion.This will likely lead to more international pressure on China to further revalue its currency, the yuan.

The country's foreign currency reserves, already the largest in the world, rose by 45 percent to more than $1.4 trillion.

Daniel Schearf for VOA News, Beijing. (25 October 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-31 10:46 | オリジナル英文

No.216 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
China's Economy Surges Ahead Despite Attempts to Curb Overheating,
Inflation
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

China's juggernaut economy has grown by 11.5 percent so far this year,

defying government efforts

to slow the rapid expansion.

The continued growth has put China on track

to surpass Germany as the world's third largest economy,

by as early as December.

Growth was fueled

by foreign trade that rose by 23 percent,

and investment in fixed assets, such as factories and roads,

which were up by nearly 26 percent.

The government has instituted numerous changes

in an attempt to rein in the economy,

including tightening credit

and allowing a slow rise in the value of the currency.

But growth continues to remain in the 11 percent range,

extremely high by world standards.

Nevertheless, a spokesman for the National Bureau of Statistics, Li
Xiaochao, maintained Thursday

that the government's efforts had brought the economy under control.

He says due to macroeconomic control, the government has changed the
situation,

from an economy that is overheating, to one of "speedy growth."

Consumer prices, a key inflation indicator, were up

by 6.2 percent in September.

Overall inflation for the first three-quarters was 4.1 percent

- significantly above the government's target of three percent.

Food prices have increased

by more than 10 percent so far this year,

with meat and poultry up by 29 percent

- a warning signal that inflation could get out of control.

The public is already complaining

about a large increase

in the price of pork,

a basic part of the Chinese diet.

On a brighter note, Li says incomes have risen

more than 13 percent in the cities and 14 percent in the countryside,

and companies are more profitable.

But he acknowledged

that the economy still faces serious challenges.

He says institutional, systematic, and structural problems in economic
performance continue,

including rapid economic growth, price rises,

high pressure on energy consumption, the need to reduce pollution,

and the uncertainty of the world economy.

Chinese officials have tried and failed

to tighten the money supply

to prevent overheating and speculative investment.

They say they want to reduce the risk

of borrowers defaulting on loans,

by curbing credit and restricting land use.

However, even though interest rates have been raised five times this
year

and bank reserve requirements eight times,

government figures showed cash in circulation was up by 13 percent,

and outstanding loans increased 19 percent.

China's politically sensitive trade surplus was also up

by $75 billion for the period, to $185 billion.

This will likely lead to more international pressure on China

to further revalue its currency, the yuan.

The country's foreign currency reserves,

already the largest in the world,

rose by 45 percent to more than $1.4 trillion.

Daniel Schearf for VOA News, Beijing (25 October 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-31 10:45 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの英文法

~ 関係代名詞は怖くない! ~


 前回まで、5文型のシリーズを展開してきましたが、

 今日は、がらりと変わって関係代名詞の話題です。


 関係代名詞といえば、「これで英語学習につまずいた!」

 という人が割と多いですね。


 文法の時間でもまたリーダーの時間でも、関係代名詞が出てくると

 非常に難しいという印象から、関係代名詞と聞いただけで、

 「もうだめだ!」と思ってしまう人が大勢います。


 ところが、英米人には、関係代名詞は、特別難しいものでは

 ありません。

 幼児向きの絵本でさえ関係代名詞が多く使われているんです。


 
 実は、日本の英語教育では「返り読み」式で関係代名詞を

 学びますが、これが関係代名詞の理解を困難にしている

 元凶なんです。
 


 「英語の語順」に沿って理解するSIM方式で関係代名詞を

 捉えると、あっけないほど、すっきりと理解できてしまいますよ。



 …では、さっそくご説明しましょう。


 「SIM方式による関係代名詞の捉え方」です。



 そもそも、関係代名詞は文中で、二つの働きをしているんです。


 一つは「関係詞」としての働き、

 そして、もう一つは「代名詞」としての働きですね。


 ところが、学校英語の「返り読み」では、この二つのうち

 関係詞としての働きに重点を置いて教えられています。


 ですから、「~するところの」と訳します。

 これでは、代名詞としての働きが訳に現れないんです。


 すなわち、関係代名詞には代名詞としての働きもあることが

 完全に無視されているんですね。

  
 しかし、関係代名詞は、関係詞としての働きよりも

 代名詞としての働きの方が重要なんです。


 そして、「関係代名詞は代名詞だ」と考えるほうがはるかに

 易しいんです。


 次回は例文を使って、そのことをご説明しましょう。



          … 来週をお楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-24 17:07 | SIMうんちく

No.215 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Transportation Strike Cripples France
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

The Gare du Nord train station was practically deserted,

as loudspeakers informed travelers, in French and English,

that the trains they hoped to take would most likely not be running.

That included most domestic trains,

although some international service was also disrupted.

Along with train, bus and metro employees,

workers from public utilities joined the strike,

and many museums were closed.

Some French employees commuted to work by bicycle

or hitched rides in cars,

but many others stayed home

or participated in dozens of marches across the country

to protest government plans

to trim pension privileges

enjoyed by less than two million workers and retirees.

The strike represents the biggest test to date

for the country's hard-charging President, Nicolas Sarkozy, and his
government.

Similar efforts

to reform the country's pension system in 1995

sparked massive strikes,

and helped bring down that conservative government.

But Steven Ekovich, a political science professor at the American
University of Paris, says

things are different today.

"It is a test, but I think

this time this president will probably emerge victorious

from the test.

The difference between 1995 and today is

that public opinion is behind the President.

The French elected this president

because they felt they wanted some change."

A poll published Wednesday

by France's Le Figaro newspaper

found that 57 percent of French believed

the strike was not justified.

But at the Gare du Nord, it irritated Valery Derview,  

who blamed the government for the strike.

Ms. Derview was planning to return home to the southern city of Nice,

but there were no trains.

She blamed the government

for not introducing reforms more gradually.

But not everything was closed.

Post offices were open, although not fully functional,

and French airports reported business as usual.

Some French unions warn

they may continue the strike Friday.

Lisa Bryant for VOA News, Paris. (18 October 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-24 17:06 | SIM音読用英文

No.215 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
Transportation Strike Cripples France
----------------------------------------
The Gare du Nord train station was practically deserted, as loudspeakers informed travelers, in French and English, that the trains they hoped to take would most likely not be running. That included most domestic trains, although some international service was also disrupted.

Along with train, bus and metro employees, workers from public utilities joined the strike, and many museums were closed.

Some French employees commuted to work by bicycle or hitched rides in cars, but many others stayed home or participated in dozens of marches across the country to protest government plans to trim pension privileges enjoyed by less than two million workers and retirees.

The strike represents the biggest test to date for the country's hard-charging President, Nicolas Sarkozy, and his government. Similar efforts to reform the country's pension system in 1995 sparked massive strikes, and helped bring down that conservative government.

But Steven Ekovich, a political science professor at the American University of Paris, says things are different today.

"It is a test, but I think this time this president will probably emerge victorious from the test. The difference between 1995 and today is that public opinion is behind the President.
The French elected this president because they felt they wanted some change."

A poll published Wednesday by France's Le Figaro newspaper found that 57 percent of French believed the strike was not justified.

But at the Gare du Nord, it irritated Valery Derview, who blamed the government for the strike. Ms. Derview was planning to return home to the southern city of Nice, but there were no trains. She blamed the government for not introducing reforms more gradually.

But not everything was closed. Post offices were open, although not fully functional, and French airports reported business as usual.

Some French unions warn they may continue the strike Friday.

Lisa Bryant for VOA News, Paris. (18 October 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-24 17:04 | オリジナル英文

No.214 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
Australia Goes Online to Fight Japanese Whalers
----------------------------------------

Australia's anti-whaling film clip accuses Japan of using its scientific whaling program as a cover for commercial hunting.

The film has been posted on the popular video-sharing Web site YouTube and it aims to reach Japanese children.

It features video of humpback whales frolicking in the sea and Australia's Environment Minister Malcolm Turnbull interviewing Australian children who oppose Japan's whaling program.

Turnbull narrates the film clip, which is sub-titled in Japanese.

"Can you imagine what life on Earth would be like without these magnificent creatures? Hundreds of years of whaling nearly wiped them out. Action by our government and other nations has secured a global ban on commercial whaling and whale populations are now slowly recovering but there's still whaling going on - often under the pretext of scientific research .And we urge all countries, especially our friends in Japan, to bring their whaling programs to an end."

Japanese whale hunters plan to capture 50 humpback whales in the Antarctic in the coming months.

The endangered mammals are migrating south along the Australian coast, attracting thousands of whale watchers.

Japan also plans to kill 935 minke whales for what it calls scientific research.
Tokyo argues that its whaling program helps in the understanding of whale stocks as well as the health of the fragile Antarctic environment.

The International Whaling Commission, of which Japan is a member, banned commercial whaling more than 20 years ago, in an effort to allow stocks to rebuild.
Japan, however, argued against the ban, saying whaling was a long tradition in the country and whale meat a key part of the Japanese diet.
The whales that Japanese boats hunt each year are sold for consumption after scientists study them.

Opponents of this annual hunt plan to take legal action to stop Japan from operating in Australia's Antarctic Whale Sanctuary.

The government in Canberra, however, thinks lawsuits will be futile, as the sanctuary is not recognized by other nations.

Japan's fisheries agency has challenged its critics to take their cases to the International Court of Justice in The Hague.

The Australian government hopes public pressure will be more effective in its anti-whaling fight. Environmental groups are adopting similar tactics.

Greenpeace is using an animated film in Japan, which also features school children, to get its anti-whaling message across.

Phil Mercer for VOA News, Sydney, Australia. (10 October 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-18 09:49 | オリジナル英文

No.214 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Australia Goes Online to Fight Japanese Whalers
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

Australia's anti-whaling film clip accuses Japan

of using its scientific whaling program

as a cover for commercial hunting.

The film has been posted

on the popular video-sharing Web site YouTube

and it aims to reach Japanese children.

It features video

of humpback whales frolicking in the sea

and Australia's Environment Minister Malcolm Turnbull

interviewing Australian children

who oppose Japan's whaling program.

Turnbull narrates the film clip,

which is sub-titled in Japanese.

"Can you imagine what life on Earth would be like

without these magnificent creatures?

Hundreds of years of whaling nearly wiped them out.

Action by our government and other nations has secured a global ban

on commercial whaling

and whale populations are now slowly recovering

but there's still whaling going on

- often under the pretext of scientific research.

And we urge all countries,

especially our friends in Japan,

to bring their whaling programs to an end."

Japanese whale hunters plan to capture 50 humpback whales

in the Antarctic in the coming months.

The endangered mammals are migrating south

along the Australian coast,

attracting thousands of whale watchers.

Japan also plans to kill 935 minke whales

for what it calls scientific research.

Tokyo argues that its whaling program helps

in the understanding of whale stocks

as well as the health of the fragile Antarctic environment.

The International Whaling Commission,

of which Japan is a member,

banned commercial whaling more than 20 years ago,

in an effort to allow stocks to rebuild.

Japan, however, argued against the ban,

saying whaling was a long tradition in the country

and whale meat a key part of the Japanese diet.

The whales that Japanese boats hunt each year are sold

for consumption

after scientists study them.

Opponents of this annual hunt plan

to take legal action

to stop Japan from operating

in Australia's Antarctic Whale Sanctuary.

The government in Canberra, however, thinks lawsuits will be futile,

as the sanctuary is not recognized by other nations.

Japan's fisheries agency has challenged its critics to take their cases

to the International Court of Justice in The Hague.

The Australian government hopes

public pressure will be more effective

in its anti-whaling fight.

Environmental groups are adopting similar tactics.

Greenpeace is using an animated film in Japan,

which also features school children,

to get its anti-whaling message across.

Phil Mercer for VOA News, Sydney, Australia. (10 October 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-18 09:48 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの英文法

~ 「第5文型」その2 ~


 今日は第5文型その2です。

 今回をもって5文型シリーズは終わりになります。


 では、さっそく始めましょう。
 
 例によって、前回の復習です。

 まず例文をご覧ください。

---------------------------------

  They found him … dead.

---------------------------------
 

 易しい英文でも、きちんとグルーピングしましょうね。

 SIM訳をつけると下記になります。


------------------------------------------

  They found him   …   dead.

   彼らは彼を発見した    死んでいる

------------------------------------------


 これを翻訳して「彼らは彼が死んでいるのを発見した」

 と訳してはいけない、ということでしたね。

 そうなると、英語の構造からかけ離れた訳になってしまします。


 自然な日本語に翻訳することに気を取られてばかりいると、

 肝心の英語からどんどん離れてしまいますよ。
 

 「英語の語順」で捉えると、あくまで、「彼らは彼を発見した」

 のであり、その彼が「死んでいる」のです。


 とにかく愚直なまでに「英語の語順」で捉えること、

 それが英語上達の秘訣だ、ということでしたね。



 さて今日まで、このシリーズで「SIM方式による5文型」

 について考えてきました。


 5文型については「学校の授業では、ややわかりにくかった」

 という意見をよく聞きますが、SIM方式で5文型をとらえると、

 このように非常にすっきりと把握できます。


 SIM方式では、英文の構造をそのまま受け止めて、

 対応する語句の直下に訳を書いていくので、

 あまり文型を意識しなくても構文の把握ができるのです。


 したがって「英語の語順」で読んでいくSIM方式は、

 最も英語の構文に忠実で、しかも楽な読み方だと言えます。


 学校で5文型をかなりしっかり教える理由は、

 日本語への翻訳によって英語の構造が崩れてしまうので、

 それを補うという意味があるのかもしれません。
 


 来週からは新シリーズが始まります。


            …お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-18 09:46 | SIMうんちく

SIMの英文法

          ~ 「第5文型」その1 ~


 今日から、第5文型になります。
 
 第5文型といえば、もちろん S+V+O+C ですね。

 さっそく、例文を見てみましょう。


---------------------------------

  They found him dead.

---------------------------------


 はい、これをセンスグループで分けましょう。


---------------------------------

  They found him … dead.

---------------------------------
 

 いくら易しい英文だからといって、グルーピングを

 おろそかにしてはなりません。


 それでは、簡単に「返り読み」に戻ってしまいます。

 いくら短文であっても、きちんとセンスグループごとに

 訳するのが鉄則です。

 これが、英語上達の最短距離です。



 では、最初の句切りを訳しましょう。 

 They found him ですから、「彼らは彼を発見した」ですね。


 そして、その後に dead が続きますので、

 「死んでいる」と訳します。


------------------------------------------

  They found him   …   dead.

   彼らは彼を発見した    死んでいる

------------------------------------------


 これを日本語らしく翻訳すると、

「彼らは彼が死んでいるのを発見した」となるでしょう。


 ところが、これはあくまで、こなれた日本語の翻訳であって

 英語の構造からかけ離れた訳なのです。

 そこに一直線に行ってしまってはいけません。


 自然な日本語に翻訳することに気を取られてばかりいると、

 肝心の英語からどんどん離れてしまいますよ。
 

 英語の語順で捉えると、あくまで、「彼らは彼を発見した」

 のであり、その彼が「死んでいる」のです。


 ここを基本にして、「翻訳しなさい」というのであれば、

 「彼らは彼が死んでいるのを発見した」と訳してあげれば

 良いのです。






          …この続きは、また来週。


                     お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-10-10 16:55 | SIMうんちく