<   2007年 09月 ( 13 )   > この月の画像一覧

SIMの英文法

~ 「第4文型」 その1 ~


 今日から、第4文型です。

 第4文型とは、もちろんS+V+O+Oですね。


 ここには2つの目的語があります。

 そこで、SIM同時通訳方式では、S+V+Oと、まず前の目的語

 (間接目的語)までを、ひとまとめに捉えます。


 実は、第4文型に出て来る動詞は非常に範囲が限られています。

 それが多くの文に接しているうちにわかってきますから、S+V+Oと

 まとめても混乱しません。


 また、その方が便利だということがわかってきます。


 では、さっそく例文を見てみましょう。


------------------------------------------------------------

   The father will read his son a fairy tale.

------------------------------------------------------------


 S+V+Oがひとまとめですから、The father will read his son

 「父親は息子に読むでしょう…」で、いったん句切ります。


------------------------------------------------------------

   The father will read his son … a fairy tale.

   父親は息子に読むでしょう
    
------------------------------------------------------------


 さて、ここでとても重要なポイントがあります。


 それは、「父親は息子に読むでしょう」だから、

 「何を読むのかなー」と先を期待して読むことです。

 つまり、「anticipation(期待)」ですね。


 SIM同時通訳方式では、この anticipation が極めて

 大切なんです。


 英文をダラーッと最後まで読んでから、

 やおら意味を考えるようでは、いつまでたっても

 「返り読み」のクセが抜けないからです。

 
 日本語は、最初に付帯する情報を言って、最後に結論

 (述語動詞)が来ます。


 たとえば、「私は来週、映画を見に行きます」という具合です。


 しかし、英語は違います。 


----------------------------------------------------

  I want to go … to see a movie … next week.

  私は行きます … 映画を見に  …  来週。

----------------------------------------------------


 このように、英語では最初に結論があります。


 そして、センスグループごとに、次々と、これに付帯する

 情報を付け加えていくのです。



 ですから、先ほどの例文の、The father will read his son

 「父親は息子に読むでしょう」を読んだ時点で、

 「何を読むのかな!」と、次を期待(anticipation)して

 読む姿勢が、極めて大切になります。


 すると、a fairy tale ですから、「おとぎ話を」となり、

 「う~ん、そうかー。父親が息子に読むのは、おとぎ話なんだな」

 と期待が充足されて、知的な満足感を得るわけです。

 
 このような「期待」と「充足」のサイクルが、英語を読む醍醐味

 なんです。


 それがまた英語上達の秘訣でもあります。



           …この続きは、また来週。


                      お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-26 17:13 | SIMうんちく

No.211 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
'West Side Story' Celebrates 50th Anniversary
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

Set in the slums of New York City

– amidst the backdrop of 1950s-era ethnic gang warfare –

"West Side Story" revolutionized American musical theater.

"In 1957 when it came out

it was unlike anything

that had ever been seen before."

Nathan Scherich co-stars

in an anniversary production of the now-legendary musical.

He plays Tony, a street punk

who yearns for a better life.

"He wants out of the gang.

He knows there is something else going on in life

rather than gangs.

He does not know quite what it is.

But then he gets to the dance at the gym

and sees Maria for the first time in that.

What he realizes is that

that’s what he has been looking for."

Actress Sarah Darling plays Maria.

"She is a very young girl

who has just moved to America –

she has only been here for a month.

She comes from a very protective family,

over-protective really.

And so she is just really anxious to grow up

and kind of experience life in America."

The exuberance of that life is portrayed

in "West Side Story."

But what made the show so innovative

when it premiered 50 years ago

was its depiction

of urban slum life

in a series of song and dance numbers

the likes of which had not been seen before

on the American stage.

"The music is so amazing.

I mean it is the best there is in musical theater,

so the music will get you as well."

The songs in "West Side Story" have left a deep mark

on American culture.

And today, half-a-century after it was first staged,

the production still has the power

to connect with audiences.

"People are touched

in different ways.

Some of them are mad at the end, some of them are sad.

I mean, it affects people

in different fashions."

"A lot of times in musical theater you end the show

and everyone is just, 'Yea!' happy and excited.

And this one their joy and their applause come from a place

of being deeply moved.

And so that's really rewarding for me,

and hopefully, for them as well."

Credit for that goes partly to Shakespeare, of course –

his genius framed the basic story.

But the combined genius of American masters in music, dance, and
theater production are

what make "West Side Story" a modern-day classic

of unique and enduring delight.

Naomi Martig, VOA News, Hong Kong.(18 September 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-26 11:26 | SIM音読用英文

No.211 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
'West Side Story' Celebrates 50th Anniversary
----------------------------------------
Set in the slums of New York City -- amidst the backdrop of 1950s-era ethnic gang warfare -- "West Side Story" revolutionized American musical theater.

"In 1957 when it came out it was unlike anything that had ever been seen before." Nathan Scherich co-stars in an anniversary production of the now-legendary musical.
He plays Tony, a street punk who yearns for a better life. "He wants out of the gang.
He knows there is something else going on in life rather than gangs. He does not know quite what it is. But then he gets to the dance at the gym and sees Maria for the first time in that. What he realizes is that that’s what he has been looking for."

Actress Sarah Darling plays Maria. "She is a very young girl who has just moved to America -- she has only been here for a month. She comes from a very protective family, over-protective really. And so she is just really anxious to grow up and kind of experience life in America."

The exuberance of that life is portrayed in "West Side Story." But what made the show so innovative when it premiered 50 years ago was its depiction of urban slum life in a series of song and dance numbers the likes of which had not been seen before on the American stage.

"The music is so amazing. I mean it is the best there is in musical theater, so the music will get you as well."

The songs in "West Side Story" have left a deep mark on American culture. And today, half-a-century after it was first staged, the production still has the power to connect with audiences.

"People are touched in different ways. Some of them are mad at the end, some of them are sad. I mean, it affects people in different fashions."

"A lot of times in musical theater you end the show and everyone is just, 'Yea!' happy and excited. And this one their joy and their applause come from a place of being deeply moved. And so that's really rewarding for me, and hopefully, for them as well."

Credit for that goes partly to Shakespeare, of course -- his genius framed the basic story. But the combined genius of American masters in music, dance, and theater production are what make "West Side Story" a modern-day classic of unique and enduring delight.

I’m Jim Bertel, VOA News. (18 September 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-26 11:23 | オリジナル英文

SIMの英文法

~ 「第3文型」 その5 ~


 今日は、第3文型その5です。

 例によって、ちょっと前回の復習をしましょうね。



 下記の例文を、「英語の語順」に沿って訳してみましょう。

 あらかじめセンスグループで句切ってあります。

 
---------------------------------------------

 1) He became … a doctor.

 2) He respected … the doctor.

---------------------------------------------


 1)、2)とも簡単な文です。

 しかし、この二つの英文の a(the)doctor には日本語のように

「~に」や「~を」の助詞がついていません。


したがって、私たち日本人がこの英文を読むには a(the) doctorが、

「医者に」なのか「医者を」なのか、判断しなければなりません。


1)では「に」を補い、2)では「を」をつけ加えることができる、

 というのは、すぐわかるでしょう。

 
 では、なぜそうなるのでしょう?

 それは、動詞の意味内容がわかっているからです。


 つまり、1)では「彼はなった」ですから、「医者に」であって

 「医者を」ではないのです。
 

 ですから、私たちは a(the) doctorが「医者に」なのか、それとも
 
 「医者を」なのかを考える前に、He becameまたは He respectedの

 意味を先に把握しなければならないはずです。


 その結果、1)の We became 「彼はなった」の後には「何に」なった

 のかに当たる語が来ることが期待されます。


 そして、2)の He respected 「彼は尊敬した」の後には「誰を」に

 当たる語が来ることが期待されます。



 ところが、学校英語の「返り読み」式では、このような英文の和訳で

 ちょっと問題が出てくるんです。


 どこが問題かというと…




 …今日は、この続きを書きます。 


 学校英語の「返り読み」式では、Vの部分は後回しにしておき、

 a(the)doctorの部分を先に訳させますよね。


 しかし、これでは「医者に」にしたらよいのか「医者を」にしたら

 よいのか判断できないはずです。


 教えている先生は分かっているからよいでしょうが、学習者には

 判断が不可能なはずです。


 これができるはずだと言うには、やはり、S+Vの部分の

 意味内容がわかっている、という前提に立っているからではないで

 しょうか。


 しかし、学校英語では最初から正しい日本語にすることしかやって

 いません。

 ここに学校英語の矛盾があるのではないでしょうか。


 つまり、翻訳することにのみ性急で、その前提となる英文の

 分析方法が的確に教えられていないのです。



 この矛盾が日本中の学習者を苦しめる原因になっています。

 教室で指名されて訳させられるときに、文の後の方にある名詞に

 「を」をつけたらよいのか、「に」をつけたらよいのか、分からないで

 困ってしまった経験が、だれにでもあるのではないでしょうか。



 本来英文を日本語に訳すには、まずセンスグループごとに英文を理解し、

 SIM訳をしてからでないと正しい日本文にはできないのですから、

 いきなり翻訳するのではなく、まずSIM訳の段階を徹底的に

 習得すべきなのですね。


 …来週から、第4文型です。



          …では、また来週。お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-19 17:48 | SIMうんちく

No.210 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
Japanese PM Resigns Following Year-Long Political Turmoil
----------------------------------------

After a very troubled year that saw Japan's ruling party embroiled in allegations of financial wrongdoings and scandals, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has decided to call it quits.

During a televised news conference, Mr. Abe said he is resigning because he believes Japan needs a new leader to fight against terrorism, and the country needs a new leader the people can support and trust.

Last week, Mr. Abe said he would resign if lawmakers did not extend a Japanese naval mission in support of U.S.-led operations in Afghanistan.

Japan's navy has been refueling coalition warships in the Indian Ocean since 2001.

The law enabling that mission is set to expire November 1, and the opposition Democratic Party, which won control of the upper house of parliament in July, opposes an extension.

The naval mission has been a priority for Mr. Abe since he came into office last September, along with boosting Japan's global influence and revising the country's pacifist constitution.

Jeff Kingston is director of Asian studies at Temple University in Japan.

Kingston says Mr. Abe's colleagues in the Liberal Democratic Party realized that the opposition's repeated calls for him to step down could make extending the naval mission very difficult.

"So I think that the party elders realized, well, if there is any chance to revive this legislation in some form or another, and to strike some sort of deal with the opposition on extending this legislation, that Abe had to go.”
Yoshinori Suematsu, a member of the Democratic Party in Japan's lower house, says Mr. Abe's announcement was irresponsible, because just weeks ago he had refused to consider resigning.

"Every member of the diet was really surprised at the sudden news.

We are very much embarrassed by no clear reason stated by Prime Minister, Mr. Abe."

Mr. Abe and the party received high popularity ratings at the beginning of the year.

But the ratings have plummeted following a series of scandals.

First, the government admitted it had mishandled thousands of pension records.

Four cabinet ministers have since resigned following accusations of financial wrongdoing, and a fifth committed suicide just before being questioned in yet another financial scandal.

Mr. Abe is the youngest Japanese leader in modern times and the first to be born after World War II.

He was praised for his efforts to improve ties with China and South Korea, which were badly damaged during his predecessor's term.

Naomi Martig, VOA News, Hong Kong. (12 September 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-19 17:47 | オリジナル英文

No.210 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Japanese PM Resigns Following Year-Long Political Turmoil
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

After a very troubled year

that saw Japan's ruling party embroiled

in allegations of financial wrongdoings and scandals,

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has decided to call it quits.

During a televised news conference, Mr. Abe said he is resigning

because he believes Japan needs a new leader

to fight against terrorism,

and the country needs a new leader

the people can support and trust.

Last week, Mr. Abe said he would resign

if lawmakers did not extend a Japanese naval mission

in support of U.S.-led operations in Afghanistan.

Japan's navy has been refueling coalition warships

in the Indian Ocean since 2001.

The law enabling that mission is set to expire November 1,

and the opposition Democratic Party,

which won control of the upper house of parliament in July,

opposes an extension.

The naval mission has been a priority for Mr. Abe

since he came into office last September,

along with boosting Japan's global influence and revising the
country's pacifist constitution.

Jeff Kingston is director of Asian studies

at Temple University in Japan.

Kingston says Mr. Abe's colleagues in the Liberal Democratic Party
realized

that the opposition's repeated calls for him to step down

could make extending the naval mission very difficult.

"So I think that the party elders realized,

well, if there is any chance to revive this legislation

in some form or another,

and to strike some sort of deal with the opposition

on extending this legislation,

that Abe had to go.”

Yoshinori Suematsu, a member of the Democratic Party in Japan's lower
house,

says Mr. Abe's announcement was irresponsible,

because just weeks ago he had refused to consider resigning.

"Every member of the diet was really surprised

at the sudden news.

We are very much embarrassed

by no clear reason stated by Prime Minister, Mr. Abe."

Mr. Abe and the party received high popularity ratings

at the beginning of the year.

But the ratings have plummeted

following a series of scandals.

First, the government admitted

it had mishandled thousands of pension records.

Four cabinet ministers have since resigned

following accusations of financial wrongdoing,

and a fifth committed suicide

just before being questioned in yet another financial scandal.

Mr. Abe is the youngest Japanese leader in modern times

and the first to be born after World War II.

He was praised for his efforts

to improve ties with China and South Korea,

which were badly damaged

during his predecessor's term.

Naomi Martig, VOA News, Hong Kong.(12 September 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-19 17:46 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの英文法

~ 「第3文型」 その4 ~


 今日は、第3文型その4です。

 例によって、ちょっと前回の復習をしましょうね。


 前回は、「SIM訳とは何か」について突っ込んで説明しました。


 SIM訳は一見すると、不自然で煩わしい訳に感じますが、

 ここには英語上達の限りない秘訣がある、ということでしたね。


 たとえば、下記の英文と、その訳をご覧ください。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

  Henry Ford used…a new idea…in the manufacturing…of   
 
 machinery.

 ヘンリー・フォードは採用した…新しい考え方を…製造に…機械の

-------------------------------------------------------------------


 このようなSIM訳は、本来他人に見せるためのものでありません。

 自分のために自分の頭の中でするものです。
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 つまり、トレーニングである、ということでした。



 ひとつの例として、相撲の「四股」のお話をしましたね。

 片足を高く上げてバチンと土俵に降ろす四股は、対戦中に

 そのような動作をしないと言う意味で、「不自然」な動作かも

 しれません。


 しかし、そんなことは事の本質と関係ありません。

 不自然であろうとなかろうと、効果的なトレーニングだから

 お相撲さんは四股を踏むのです。


 
 SIM訳も、これと全く同じ!

 それは「見せるためのもの」ではなく「自分のためのトレーニング」

 なのです。


 ですから、見かけを気にせずに、どんどん「英語の語順」に忠実に

 理解していってください。


  …ということでした。



 今日はこの続きです。

 では、下記の例文を、今言った要領で「英語の語順」に沿って

 訳してみましょう。

 あらかじめセンスグループで句切ってあります。

 
---------------------------------------------

 1) He became … a doctor.

 2) He respected … the doctor.

---------------------------------------------


 1)、2)とも簡単な文です。

 しかし、この二つの英文の a(the)doctor には日本語のように

「~に」や「~を」の助詞がついていません。


したがって、私たち日本人がこの英文を読むには a(the) doctorが、

「医者に」なのか「医者を」なのか、判断しなければなりません。


1)では「に」を補い、2)では「を」をつけ加えることができる、

 というのは、すぐわかるでしょう。

 
 では、なぜそうなるのでしょう?

 それは、動詞の意味内容がわかっているからです。


 つまり、1)では「彼はなった」ですから、「医者に」であって

 「医者を」ではないのです。
 

 ですから、私たちは a(the) doctorが「医者に」なのか、それとも
 
 「医者を」なのかを考える前に、He becameまたは He respectedの

 意味を先に把握しなければならないはずです。


 その結果、1)の We became 「彼はなった」の後には「何に」なった

 のかに当たる語が来ることが期待されます。


 そして、2)の He respected 「彼は尊敬した」の後には「誰を」に

 当たる語が来ることが期待されます。



 ところが、学校英語の「返り読み」式では、このような英文の和訳で

 ちょっと問題が出てくるんです。


 どこが問題かというと…




          …この続きは、また来週。お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-12 10:20 | SIMうんちく

No.209 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
iPhone Price Cut Angers Some Apple Customers
----------------------------------------
Consumers usually welcome price breaks, but not when they recently purchased a product, only to see everyone else able to buy the same merchandise for significantly less. Until Wednesday, Apple's revolutionary cellular telephone, media player and web surfer rolled into one, called the iPhone, sold for $599. Today, it can be purchased for $399.

Apple says the price cut is designed to boost sales as America's holiday shopping season nears. Many iPhone owners are crying foul although people who purchased the gadget within the last two weeks are entitled to a refund of the price difference.

The negative reaction overwhelmed what was supposed to be an upbeat day Wednesday for Apple. Chief executive Steve Jobs announced an overhaul of the California-based company's highly-profitable iPod media players.

"It is going to come in all these great colors. It is super-thin. We think it is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is just incredible."

Prices for high technology gear often fall after their introduction, but many analysts say it is unusual for the price to be slashed so dramatically and so quickly for a ground-breaking product. At the same time, they note that the price cut will make it easier for Apple to meet its goal of selling one million iPhone units in the United States by the end of the month.

In other news, the number of American homeowners in danger of losing their property continues to grow. More than one in 20 homeowners are behind in their mortgage payments, and the U.S. Mortgage Bankers Association reports that the number of foreclosure proceedings has reached all-time highs in each of the last three quarters.

America's housing and mortgage industries have been hard-hit by upheaval in the so-called "sub-prime" market, referring to loans with higher interest rates designed for those with poor credit. The upheaval is blamed for recent stock market volatility across the globe.

In more positive news, the U.S. Labor Department is reporting greater than expected gains in U.S. productivity, while jobless claims in the United States fell last week for the first time in nearly two months.

Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington. (06 September 2007)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-12 10:15 | オリジナル英文

No.209 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
iPhone Price Cut Angers Some Apple Customers
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

Consumers usually welcome price breaks,

but not when they recently purchased a product,

only to see everyone else able to buy the same merchandise

for significantly less.

Until Wednesday, Apple's revolutionary cellular telephone,

media player and web surfer rolled into one,

called the iPhone,

sold for $599.

Today, it can be purchased for $399.

Apple says the price cut is designed to boost sales

as America's holiday shopping season nears.

Many iPhone owners are crying foul

although people who purchased the gadget within the last two
weeks are entitled

to a refund of the price difference.

The negative reaction overwhelmed

what was supposed to be an upbeat day Wednesday for Apple.

Chief executive Steve Jobs announced an overhaul

of the California-based company's highly-profitable iPod
media players.

"It is going to come in all these great colors.

It is super-thin.

We think it is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

It is just incredible."

Prices for high technology gear often fall

after their introduction,

but many analysts say

it is unusual for the price to be slashed

so dramatically and so quickly

for a ground-breaking product.

At the same time, they note

that the price cut will make it easier

for Apple to meet its goal

of selling one million iPhone units

in the United States by the end of the month.

In other news, the number of American homeowners

in danger of losing their property

continues to grow.

More than one in 20 homeowners are behind

in their mortgage payments,

and the U.S. Mortgage Bankers Association reports

that the number of foreclosure proceedings has reached all-time highs

in each of the last three quarters.

America's housing and mortgage industries have been hard-hit

by upheaval in the so-called "sub-prime" market,

referring to loans with higher interest rates

designed for those with poor credit.

The upheaval is blamed

for recent stock market volatility across the globe.

In more positive news,

the U.S. Labor Department is reporting

greater than expected gains in U.S. productivity,

while jobless claims in the United States fell last week

for the first time in nearly two months.

Michael Bowman, VOA News, Washington.(06 September 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-12 10:13 | SIM音読用英文

あなたは「キレる人」ですか?

皆様に、ちょっと質問をします。

 あなたは「キレる人」ですか?


 この場合、「キレる」=「頭が良い」という意味ではありません。

 「ちょっとしたことで感情を爆発させてはいませんか」ということです。


 先日のNHKクローズアップ現代は「”キレる大人”の謎」が

 テーマでした。 …これが本当に面白かった!



 『すれ違った時に肩がぶつかる、

 後ろの車にクラクションを鳴らされる、

 あるいは電車の中でマナー違反を目にする。

 こういった日常茶飯事の出来事に対して、

 分別のある大人の対応ができず、すぐに感情を爆発させたり、

 時には暴行に至ってしまう大人たち。

 そんな大人が急増しています。』(番組より)



 う~ん、いるいる、そんな人。 

(というか私自身、時たまキレてしまうことが…(反省)



 ところで、「キレる人」という場合、一般に

 「自己中心的な人」「しつけがうまくなされなかった人」という

 イメージを持ってしまいがちです。



 でも最近の研究によると、ちょっと違うみたいです。

 キレる原因のひとつは、脳内物質「セロトニン」の減少によるもの

 なんだそうです。


 人間は過度なストレスにさらされると、感情をコントロールする物質

 「セロトニン」が減少し、攻撃的な行動に歯止めがかからなくなるとか。

 これが他人に向かうと「キレる」であり、自分に向かうと「うつ」に

 なるのだそうです。



 ですから、対処法としては「セロトニン」を積極的にふやす、という

 こと。これが増えると、心に平和が訪れるということです。


 では、その方法はと言うと?

 結局、「夜は早く寝る」「朝は早起きをする」「適度な運動をする」

 とまあ、要するにフツーに「規則正しい健康的な生活をする」、

 ということらしいです。




 …よーし、今日は早く寝るぞ!(笑)




  
     “Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you;

     not as the world gives do I give to you.” Bible
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-09-06 12:06 | 編集後記