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SIMの英文法

~ 「第3文型」 その2 ~


今日は、第3文型その2です。

例によって、ちょっと前回の復習をしましょうね。


まず、例文からご覧ください。

すでにセンスグループごとに句切ってあります。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

We can make…all kinds of arrangements…by telephone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


ここで注意すべきポイントは、makeは「作る、する、させる」などと、

場合によって意味を選択しなければならない、ということでした。


これらの意味を念頭に置いて、次を読むと、

all kinds of arrangements ですから、

具体的な物を「作る」のではなく、「する」のだという訳を瞬間的に

選択することになります。


英米人はそのような頭の働かせ方をしていますので、

私たちも同じような発想法をしましょう、ということでしたね。



最後のセンスグループでは、 by telephone「電話で」と副詞句で、

その手段が述べられています。

したがって、SIM訳は下記のようになります。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

私たちはする … あらゆる種類の取り決めを … 電話で。

-------------------------------------------------------------------

いかがでしょうか?




…さて、今日はこの続きです。


まず、例文です。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

 Henry Ford used a new idea in the manufacturing of machinery.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


これを、センスグループごとに句切ってみましょう。

-------------------------------------------------------------------

  Henry Ford used…a new idea…in the manufacturing…of   
 
 machinery.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


最初のセンスグループ Henry Ford used を見た段階で、

「ヘンリー・フォードは使った」とパッと理解しましょう。


ところが、次のセンスグループは a new idea「新しい考え方を」と

なっています。


ですから、ここで、「使った」という訳を「採用した」という訳に、

瞬間的に修正しましょう。


「ヘンリー・フォードは採用した…新しい考え方を」ですね。


このような修正は、ネイティブであれば、日常茶飯事に行っています。

ですから、私たちもこれに慣れなくてはなりません。



次のセンスグループです。

in the manufacturing ですから、「製造に」ですね。

of machinery. と続きますので、「機械の」ですね。



結局、この文章のSIM訳は、

「ヘンリー・フォードは採用した…新しい考え方を…製造に…機械の」

となります。


ところで、このようなSIM訳を読むと、かえって煩わしい感じを

受ける人もいるかもしれません。


慣れないうちは、特にそう感じるでしょう。


また他人がしたSIM訳を読むと、書かれている文字が日本語であるだけに、

「なぜわざわざこうするのか?」と、煩わしく思えます。


しかし、SIM訳は、本来他の人に見せるためのものではなく、

自分のために自分の頭の中でするものです。
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
あくまで「英語の思考法」に頭脳を転換させるためのトレーニングなんです。


ここが、非常に大きなひとつのポイントです。


次回は、この点について、掘り下げてご説明しましょう



              …では、また来週。お楽しみに!
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-29 16:03 | SIMうんちく

No.207 オリジナル英文

----------------------------------------
Museum Highlights Los Angeles Police History, Hollywood Connections
----------------------------------------
The Los Angeles Police Museum is housed in an old station house, and it tells the story of a lawless western town that slowly developed into a modern city.

Los Angeles got its first paid police force in 1869, and part of the department's early history is shown in an exhibit of handcuffs, locks and other restraints. Glynn Martin, executive director of the Los Angeles Police Historical Society, points to three exhibit cases, opposite a row of empty jail cells.

"Some great stuff, and it dates back well into the 1800s at the start of handcuffs. We've got things like balls and chains. And we've got foreign and domestic handcuffs, and different types of restraints used throughout more than a century of the history of handcuffs."

Martin, a retired LAPD watch commander, points to a police radio from the 1950s, and a modern vehicle-mounted computer. Further on are the lights from a police patrol car and, upstairs, old uniforms. One from the 1890s features a helmet like those still worn by some British police patrolmen.

The exhibits also show the interplay of the LAPD and Hollywood. There are two wallet badges with the picture-identifications of two fictional detectives from the radio and television show Dragnet.

Martin says a spin-off series called Adam-12 would bring the department into the homes of Americans.
"For us, what it meant was the LAPD came into the living room of folks that had TV sets. The trials and tribulations of a day-to-day detective and all the trappings that went along with that were now in the living room, and that could definitely increase the understanding of what it meant to be a police officer here in Los Angeles during that time."

The department has been featured in many movies, including L.A. Confidential and the Die Hard and Lethal Weapon series.

The museum also tells the story of a real-life incident in 1997, when two heavily armed bank robbers battled police for 44 minutes in the North Hollywood section of the city.

As police radioed for reinforcements, the bank robbers fired some 1,200 rounds ammunition in a ferocious shootout caught by television news cameras.

The LAPD story has more than its share of heroism, but it also has its dark side, from corruption in the department's early days to the scandals and racial incidents of the 1990s.

The police beating of a black motorist named Rodney King would spark citywide riots in 1992, after a jury acquitted four accused officers.

The LAPD story, says retired officer Glynn Martin, is well worth the telling.

Mike O’Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angels.
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-29 16:02 | オリジナル英文

No.207 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Museum Highlights Los Angeles Police History, Hollywood Connections
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

The Los Angeles Police Museum is housed

in an old station house,

and it tells the story of a lawless western town

that slowly developed into a modern city.

Los Angeles got its first paid police force in 1869,

and part of the department's early history is shown

in an exhibit of handcuffs, locks and other restraints.

Glynn Martin, executive director of the Los Angeles Police Historical
Society,

points to three exhibit cases,

opposite a row of empty jail cells.

"Some great stuff, and it dates back well into the 1800s

at the start of handcuffs.

We've got things like balls and chains.

And we've got foreign and domestic handcuffs, and different types of
restraints

used throughout more than a century

of the history of handcuffs."

Martin, a retired LAPD watch commander, points

to a police radio from the 1950s, and a modern vehicle-mounted
computer.

Further on are the lights from a police patrol car

and, upstairs, old uniforms.

One from the 1890s features a helmet

like those still worn by some British police patrolmen.

The exhibits also show the interplay

of the LAPD and Hollywood.

There are two wallet badges

with the picture-identifications of two fictional detectives

from the radio and television show Dragnet.

Martin says a spin-off series called Adam-12

would bring the department

into the homes of Americans.

"For us, what it meant was

the LAPD came into the living room

of folks that had TV sets.

The trials and tribulations of a day-to-day detective

and all the trappings that went along with that

were now in the living room,

and that could definitely increase the understanding

of what it meant to be a police officer

here in Los Angeles during that time."

The department has been featured in many movies,

including L.A. Confidential and the Die Hard and Lethal Weapon series.

The museum also tells the story

of a real-life incident in 1997,

when two heavily armed bank robbers battled police

for 44 minutes in the North Hollywood section of the city.

As police radioed for reinforcements,

the bank robbers fired some 1,200 rounds ammunition

in a ferocious shootout

caught by television news cameras.

The LAPD story has more than its share of heroism,

but it also has its dark side,

from corruption in the department's early days

to the scandals and racial incidents of the 1990s.

The police beating

of a black motorist named Rodney King

would spark citywide riots in 1992,

after a jury acquitted four accused officers.

The LAPD story,

says retired officer Glynn Martin,

is well worth the telling。
    
By Mike O'Sullivan Los Angeles (23 August 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-29 16:01 | SIM音読用英文

キツかったー!

夏休み、多摩川源流を求めて自転車の旅へ行ってきました。

長男の自由研究の付き添いで行ったのですが、感想は表題の通りです。

昨年河口の羽田空港まで行っていたので、まあ大丈夫だろうと高をくくって

いたのですが、内容が全然ちがうじゃないですか。

当然ですが、上流へ行くんですから登りなんですよね。

青梅街道をひたすら登って奥多摩湖が眼前に広がったときには

「フワォ~~!」と2人で思わず歓声をあげました。

でもそこから多摩川源流の村、山梨県小菅村までは、まだまだ山を登ら

なければなりません。途中よほどバスに乗せてもらおうかと思いました。

それだけに、目的地へ到達したときの達成感は格別なものがありましたね。

でも、もう一度行けと言われても絶対に行きませんよ、私は。

こんなにハードなものだとは・・・

今回は自然のすばらしさと同時に、無知の偉大さを発見した旅でも

ありました。(笑)


I lift up my eyes to the hills -

where does my help come from?

My help comes from the LORD,

the Maker of heaven and earth.

Bible (Psalm 121:1,2)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-23 15:35 | 編集後記

SIMの英文法

~ 「第3文型」 その1 ~


今日から第3文型です。


2週間、間が空きましたので、前回の復習をしましょう。

前回は第2文型でした。


まず、例文からご覧ください。


<例文>
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Home is the first center… of emotional and social development…

for a child.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


これを、文頭から「英語の語順」で読むと、

まず「家庭が最初の中心的場所である」と言っています。


そして、それが何の中心的な場所なのかを説明するために、

次のセンスグループで、「情緒的、社会的発達の」という

形容詞句が使われています。


最後に、誰の「社会的発達」であるかを説明するために

for a child「子供の」(形容詞句)で説明しています。


そうすると、SIM訳はこうなります。

-------------------------------------------------------------------

家庭が最初の中心的場所である… 情緒的、社会的発達の… 子どもの。

-------------------------------------------------------------------


さて、注意点としては、『これを頭の中で「返り読み」して、

一文にまとめない』ということでしたね。 


あくまで、「家庭が最初の中心的場所である」「情緒的、社会的発達の」

「子どもの。」という3つの情報として input する、ということでした。




…今日はこの続きで、第3文型です。


ご承知のとおり、第3文型はS+V+Oですが、

第3文型になっても基本は同じです。


文頭から、センスグループごとに「英語の語順」で inputする。

これが速く正確な理解のポイントになります。



さっそく例文です。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

We can make all kinds of arrangements by telephone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


例によって、これを、センスグループごとに句切ってみますが、

第3文型の場合は、ひとまずS+Vで区切りましょう。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

We can make…all kinds of arrangements…by telephone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


すると、上記のようになりますね。


ここで注意すべきポイントは、makeは「作る、する、させる」などと、

場合によって意味を選択しなければなりないことです。


これらの意味を念頭に置いて次を読みます。


すると、all kinds of arrangementsですから、

具体的な物を「作る」のではなく、「する」のだという訳を瞬間的に

選択してください。


英米人はそのような頭の働かせ方をしています。



さて、ここで、『この場合は、「返り読み」をして

all kinds of arrangements を「あらゆる種類の取り決めを」と訳して

おいた方が、makeが自然に「する」という訳になるので良いのではないか』

…という質問が出るかもしれません。


確かに、この場合は、そういうことが言えるかもしれません。

しかし、SIMではそのような方法を取りません。

なぜかというと、英米人は「返り読み」をしないからです。


たまたま「返り読み」でうまくいく事例があったとしても、

全体的には「返り読み」は害毒以外の何ものでもありません。


あくまで、文頭からセンスグループごとに理解していく、

これがベストであり、英語学習の王道なんです。




ところで、all kinds of arrangementsは、

一番小さなセンスグループで句切って直読直解すると、

「あらゆる種類を…取り決めの」となります。


つまりこの文は「すべての種類を」と言っておいて、

次に何の種類なのかをof arrangements「取り決めの」という形容詞句で

説明しているのです。


最初の段階では、センスグループを細かく句切って読んでいくことが、

「英語の思考力」を養う上で重要なカギとなります。


しかし、「英語の思考法」が身についてくるにつれて、

次第にセンスグループのspanを長めにとって把握していくことも

可能になります。


ですから all kinds of arrangementsを一つのセンスグループとして捉え

「あらゆる種類の取り決めを」とSIM訳してもよいでしょう。



続きを読みましょう。

最後のセンスグループでは、 by telephone「電話で」と副詞句で、

その手段が述べられています。



したがって、SIM訳は下記のようになります。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

私たちはする … あらゆる種類の取り決めを … 電話で。

-------------------------------------------------------------------


…いかがでしょうか?


このようにセンスグループごとに、文頭からパッパッパッと

意味を取っていくようにしてください。
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-22 16:38 | SIMうんちく

No.206 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Super-Hero Creator Stan Lee Still Purveying Wonder
--------------------------------------
Stan Lee has dreamed up some of the most memorable characters who ever made the move from the pages of comic books to the movie screen. Working with several artists at Marvel Comics, he created or co-created the Mighty Thor, the X-Men, Dr. Strange, Daredevil, and many other characters.

The most popular is Spider-Man. A bite from an irradiated spider transformed teenaged Peter Parker into a super-hero, but he still faced adolescent problems, from acne to nervousness around girls.

Lee says all his super-heroes had human failings.

"I tried to show that even though they had super power, everything wasn't perfect in their lives.

They still had to worry about earning a living, about their relationship with other people, about their families and their health and so forth .And I tried to make them real people who happened to have super powers. And apparently that little shade of a difference was the main thing that made the characters as popular as they became."

Lee is active in many aspects of the entertainment business through his company POW! Entertainment.

"And that stands for 'purveyors of wonder. 'And we're doing movies and television shows and DVDs, and I'm creating new characters, and probably having more fun than I've ever had."

He is creating a cartoon series with former Beatles' drummer Ringo Starr, and another with celebrity-socialite Paris Hilton. He is working on film projects with Disney Pictures, producing video games and content for the Internet and for mobile phones.

"There is so much going on today, and entertainment has become so important where it used to be just movies and comic books. Then television came along. And now it's movies, television, comics, the Internet, and the DVDs, the cell phones. I mean, wherever you look, there are new types and new methods of the media and of entertainment, and it's really a very exciting world we live in."

He says the challenge of thinking up new characters and stories keeps his work exciting.

Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angels.
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-22 10:40 | オリジナル英文

No.206 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Super-Hero Creator Stan Lee Still Purveying Wonder
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

Stan Lee has dreamed up

some of the most memorable characters

who ever made the move

from the pages of comic books to the movie screen.

Working with several artists at Marvel Comics,

he created or co-created

the Mighty Thor, the X-Men, Dr. Strange, Daredevil,

and many other characters.

The most popular is Spider-Man.

A bite from an irradiated spider transformed teenaged Peter Parker

into a super-hero,

but he still faced adolescent problems,

from acne to nervousness around girls.

Lee says all his super-heroes had human failings.

"I tried to show

that even though they had super power,

everything wasn't perfect

in their lives.

They still had to worry about earning a living,

about their relationship with other people,

about their families and their health and so forth.

And I tried to make them real people

who happened to have super powers.

And apparently that little shade of a difference was the main thing
 
that made the characters as popular as they became."

Lee is active in many aspects of the entertainment business

through his company POW! Entertainment.

"And that stands for 'purveyors of wonder.'

And we're doing movies and television shows and DVDs,

and I'm creating new characters,

and probably having more fun

than I've ever had."

He is creating a cartoon series

with former Beatles' drummer Ringo Starr,

and another with celebrity-socialite Paris Hilton.

He is working on film projects with Disney Pictures,

producing video games

and content for the Internet and for mobile phones.

"There is so much going on today,

and entertainment has become so important

where it used to be just movies and comic books.

Then television came along.

And now it's movies, television, comics, the Internet, and the DVDs,
the cell phones.

I mean, wherever you look, there are new types and new methods

of the media and of entertainment,

and it's really a very exciting world

we live in."

He says the challenge

of thinking up new characters and stories

keeps his work exciting.
    
Mike O'Sullivan, VOA News, Los Angels. (16 August 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-22 10:37 | SIM音読用英文

SIMの英文法

~ 「第2文型」 その3 ~


今日は第2文型の3回目です。


前回は、「返り読み」をしていたらうまく訳せない、というお話を

しました。

下記の文を見てください。


------------------------------------------------------------

 Southern California is a good place to grow oranges.

------------------------------------------------------------


試しに、これを「返り読み」で訳してみましょう。

まず、文末の …  to grow oranges. ですね。



これを訳そうとするとき、ひとつの訳に絞り込めないことがわかります。

つまり、

これが、「オレンジを栽培するのに」(形容詞的用法)となるのか、

「オレンジを栽培すること」(名詞的用法)となるのか、

「オレンジを栽培するために」(副詞的用法)となるのかは、

この時点では全く判らない、ということです。


それは、文頭から英語の語順どおりに読んで、「南カリフォルニアは良い

所です」という情報をつかんでいなければ、決して導き出せない訳である、

ということなんです。



ここが「返り読み」の不合理さでしたね。

結局、「SIM同時通訳方式」に従って、文頭からスラスラ読んでいく

ことが、最良の英文読解法なのです。



…今日は、この続きです。


まず、例文です。

<例文>
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Home is the first center of emotional and social development

for a child.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


これをセンスグループごとに句切ってみましょう。


-------------------------------------------------------------------

Home is the first center… of emotional and social development…

for a child.

-------------------------------------------------------------------


では、文頭から順に読んでください。


まず「家庭が最初の中心的場所である」と言っていますよね。


このように結論をまず述べてから、何の中心的な場所なのかを説明するために

形容詞句が使われています。


次のセンスグループは、「情緒的、社会的発達の」です。


最後に、何のための「中心」であるかを or a child「子供の」(形容詞句)

で説明しています。


したがって、SIM訳はこうなります。

-------------------------------------------------------------------

家庭が最初の中心的場所である… 情緒的、社会的発達の… 子どもの。

-------------------------------------------------------------------


注意点として、これを決して「ふ~ん。『家庭は、子どもの情緒的、社会的

発達の最初の中心的場所である』ということなのね…」と頭の中で、

「返り読み」して理解しないでください。 


あくまで、「家庭が最初の中心的場所である」「情緒的、社会的発達の」

「子どもの。」という3つの情報として input するようにしてください。



次の例文です。

---------------------------------------------------------

 Newspapers are the oldest form of mass media.

---------------------------------------------------------


センスグループごとに句切りましょう。


---------------------------------------------------------

 Newspapers are the oldest form…of mass media.

---------------------------------------------------------


この文も「英語の思考法」で頭から読んでみると、まず

「新聞が最も古い形態である」と言っています。


そして、of mass media「大衆伝達の」と言っています。


これも、結論としてすでに言った語句を説明するために、形容詞句が

使われている、ということですね。


ですから、the oldest form「最も古い形態」のイメージをまずつかんで

から、of mass media「大衆伝達の」という説明を input しなければなり

ません。


このように、センスグループごとに、英語の語順で「パン、パン、パン」と

理解していくことが速読の決め手です。
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-08 16:06 | SIMうんちく

No.205 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Recovery Effort Continues at Collapsed Minneapolis Bridge
---------------------------------------
A day after the collapse of the 35 West freeway near downtown Minneapolis, recovery crews work carefully around the rubble, much of which is submerged in water, trying to locate bodies. Authorities say they do not expect to find any more survivors.

They say the death toll is likely to rise as crews remove rubble and bring up submerged vehicles.

Police officials say, in the first hours after the collapse, rescue workers located several people who were pinned under rubble, but were unable to save them.

In Minneapolis, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters announced an immediate grant of $5 million to help reroute traffic in the busy metropolitan area around the bridge.

Investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board are also on hand to begin an investigation into why the structure failed. Authority say there is no indication of sabotage or terrorist involvement in the incident.

Recent inspections of the fallen bridge revealed structural fatigue, but nothing that would have required it to be closed. Authorities say there are tens of thousands of bridges in the United States with signs of structural fatigue and that there is no reason to believe they are not safe.

In Minneapolis, the focus for the moment is on locating up to 30 people reported as missing and recovering vehicles and bodies from the river.

Police Chief Tim Dolan says recovery crews face danger entering the debris-filled area under the bridge where undercurrents can be treacherous. He says the next phase of the recovery effort will be slow and cautious.

"We know that there are numerous other vehicles that are in the water and so the recovery involving those vehicles and people who may be in those vehicles is going to take a long time. We are planning on staffing this perimeter for three days minimally and it is probably going to be longer as far as the recovery aspect of this incident.

Minneapolis Mayor Raymond Rybak also emphasized the long-term nature of the healing process for those who lost loved ones in the disaster.

"More than anything else we are in a long emotional battle for people who are going to suffer scars for a long period of time. So, as much as we appreciate the tremendous outpouring of emotion today, we are going to need that over a long period of time. So we call on all of you to, please, surround those who you know who need support with that support right now."

The 160-meter-long bridge rose 20 meters over the Mississippi River. It was used by up to 200,000 commuters every day.

Greg Flakus, VOA News, Houston.
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-08 10:54 | オリジナル英文

No.205 SIM音読用英文

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Recovery Effort Continues at Collapsed Minneapolis Bridge
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A day after the collapse of the 35 West freeway

near downtown Minneapolis,

recovery crews work carefully around the rubble,
             
much of which is submerged in water,

trying to locate bodies.

Authorities say they do not expect

to find any more survivors.

They say the death toll is likely to rise

as crews remove rubble and bring up submerged vehicles.

Police officials say, in the first hours after the collapse,

rescue workers located several people

who were pinned under rubble,

but were unable to save them.

In Minneapolis, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters

announced an immediate grant of $5 million

to help reroute traffic

in the busy metropolitan area around the bridge.

Investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board are also
on hand

to begin an investigation

into why the structure failed.

Authority say there is no indication

of sabotage or terrorist involvement

in the incident.

Recent inspections of the fallen bridge revealed structural fatigue,

but nothing that would have required it to be closed.

Authorities say there are tens of thousands of bridges in the United
States

with signs of structural fatigue

and that there is no reason to believe

they are not safe.

In Minneapolis, the focus for the moment

is on locating up to 30 people reported as missing

and recovering vehicles and bodies from the river.

Police Chief Tim Dolan says recovery crews face danger

entering the debris-filled area under the bridge

where undercurrents can be treacherous.

He says the next phase of the recovery effort

will be slow and cautious.
       
"We know that there are numerous other vehicles

that are in the water

and so the recovery

involving those vehicles and people who may be in those vehicles

is going to take a long time.

We are planning on staffing this perimeter

for three days minimally

and it is probably going to be longer

as far as the recovery aspect of this incident.

Minneapolis Mayor Raymond Rybak also emphasized

the long-term nature of the healing process

for those who lost loved ones in the disaster.

"More than anything else we are in a long emotional battle for people

who are going to suffer scars for a long period of time.

So, as much as we appreciate the tremendous outpouring of emotion
today,

we are going to need that over a long period of time.

So we call on all of you

to, please, surround those

who you know who need support  

with that support right now."

The 160-meter-long bridge rose 20 meters

over the Mississippi River.

It was used

by up to 200,000 commuters every day.

Greg Flakus, VOA News, Houston. (2 August 2007)
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2007-08-08 10:50 | SIM音読用英文