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SIM方式の英文法 その25

~ 目に見えない英文法 補足6 ~


さて、「目に見えない英文法」シリーズをずいぶん長いこと続けてきました。

なぜこのように詳しく書いてきたかと言いますと、その理由は「目に見えない
英文法」が、「SIM同時通訳方式の必然性」を現しているからなんです。

ひとことで言えば、英語は、SIM同時通訳方式でなければ、つまり「英語の
語順」でなければ、本当には意味がわからないようにできています。

ですから、SIM同時通訳方式さえ身につければ、英語は頭から「英語の語順」
でどんどん理解していくことが可能になります。

それは、とりもなおさず、SIM同時通訳方式とは英語の本質から生まれてき
た、ということを意味しているんです。



私は、これまで何度も「文法が先ではなく意味が先だ」と言ってきました。

これはどういうことか、ある程度の英文法を一通り覚えてしまえば、それ以上、
英文法を苦労して覚える必要はないということです。

文法学者になるつもりなら話は違いますが、一般的には、「要するに判れば足
りる」のです。

意味がわかるのに、それ以上の時間を費やして難しい文法事項を覚える必要は
ありません。

それよりも、むしろ、英語を英語の語順で、文頭から読み、聴く習慣を身につ
け、多くの英文に触れることが大切です。



実は、私たちは、日本語の場合だとそのようにしているのです。

私たち日本人は、ほとんど文法も知らずに日本語を使っていますよね。
日本語の辞書を持っていても、日本語の文法書を持っている人はまれでしょう。

ならば、英語の習得でも事情は同じでないでしょうか?

英語の勉強がある程度のレベルに達している人が、いつまでも「文法、文法」と
言って、あたかも文法が最も大切であるかのような勉強をしているのは、大きな
間違いです。



もちろん、英文法は英語を理解する上で、大きな助けになります。
このメルマガでも、以前「英文法を武器にする」というテーマで、何度か書き
ました。

しかし、必要以上に英文法に振り回されることは学習の妨げにしかなりません。

私たちは、文法をことさら意識することなく、SIM同時通訳方式によって、
「英語の語順」でどんどん英語を読み、聴くような勉強を続けることをお勧め
します。



   … この続きは、また次回のお楽しみ …
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-25 11:42 | SIMうんちく

No.167 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Australia Tests Bird Flu Defenses
--------------------------------------
Australia has so far been free of the H5N1 bird flu virus, but there is understandable concern here as Australia's near neighbor, Indonesia, has reported the world's highest number of human fatalities from the disease.

The four-day simulation, called Exercise Cumpston after a famous scientist, tested Australia's readiness for a bird flu outbreak.

It began at the international airport in the east coast city of Brisbane.

150 passengers, played by actors, arrived on board a flight from the fictitious Asian country of Acamar, which had reported an outbreak of avian influenza.

A series of drills tested the readiness of customs officers, who separated out the "sick" passengers at the airport, and emergency services and health workers at two city hospitals designated to treat the disease.A mock emergency cabinet meeting was held in the federal capital, Canberra.

Australia's federal health minister, Tony Abbot, says the test showed that the country is prepared.

"Exercise Cumpston is the largest ever health simulation exercise undertaken in Australia.I think that what we have seen today demonstrates just how thorough the preparation for a potential bird flu outbreak has been."

Experts believe that if bird flu reaches Australia, it will almost certainly be spread by air travel rather than by migrating birds.

The drill was held in the northeastern state of Queensland because officials there believe the region, with its three international airports, is one of the most vulnerable in the country to the disease.

The simulated drills come as health authorities here approved trials for a new bird flu vaccine.

The H5N1 virus first appeared in Hong Kong in 1997, where 18 people were infected and six died.The disease reappeared in Vietnam and China in 2003, and has since killed more than 150 people, mostly in Southeast Asia.

Almost all human cases so far have come from people handling infected poultry.But scientists fear the virus could mutate into a form that can pass rapidly between humans, which could lead to a global pandemic putting millions of people at risk.

The Australian government has spent more than $450 million preparing for such an outbreak, and has built up one of the world's largest stockpiles of anti-viral drugs.

Phil Mercer for VOA News, Sydney, Australia.
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-25 11:40 | オリジナル英文

No.167 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Australia Tests Bird Flu Defenses
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Australia has so far been free of the H5N1 bird flu virus,

but there is understandable concern here

as Australia's near neighbor, Indonesia,

has reported the world's highest number of human fatalities from
the disease.

The four-day simulation,

called Exercise Cumpston after a famous scientist,

tested Australia's readiness for a bird flu outbreak.

It began at the international airport

in the east coast city of Brisbane.

150 passengers, played by actors, arrived on board a flight

from the fictitious Asian country of Acamar,

which had reported an outbreak of avian influenza.

A series of drills tested the readiness of customs officers,

who separated out the "sick" passengers at the airport,

and emergency services and health workers at two city hospitals

designated to treat the disease.

A mock emergency cabinet meeting was held

in the federal capital, Canberra.

Australia's federal health minister, Tony Abbot, says

the test showed that the country is prepared.

"Exercise Cumpston is the largest ever health simulation exercise

undertaken in Australia.

I think that what we have seen today demonstrates

just how thorough the preparation for a potential bird flu outbreak
has been."

Experts believe that if bird flu reaches Australia,

it will almost certainly be spread by air travel

rather than by migrating birds.

The drill was held in the northeastern state of Queensland

because officials there believe

the region, with its three international airports,

is one of the most vulnerable in the country to the disease.

The simulated drills come

as health authorities here approved trials

for a new bird flu vaccine.

The H5N1 virus first appeared in Hong Kong in 1997,

where 18 people were infected and six died.

The disease reappeared in Vietnam and China in 2003,

and has since killed more than 150 people, mostly in Southeast Asia.

Almost all human cases so far have come

from people handling infected poultry.
       
But scientists fear the virus could mutate into a form

that can pass rapidly between humans,

which could lead to a global pandemic

putting millions of people at risk.

The Australian government has spent more than $450 million

preparing for such an outbreak,

and has built up one of the world's largest stockpiles

of anti-viral drugs.

Phil Mercer for VOA News, Sydney, Australia.
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-25 11:39 | SIM音読用英文

SIM方式の英文法 その24

~ 目に見えない英文法 補足5 ~


大好評の「目に見えない英文法」シリーズまだまだ続きます。

今回は、「目に見えない英文法」が、SIM同時通訳方式とどのようにかかわ
っているか、そのお話の続きです。


ちょっと前回の復習をしましょう。

これまで何度も言ってきましたが、「目に見えない英文法」がきちんとわかると、
英文法の本質が自然にわかってきます。

たとえば、次の例文を見てください。


----------------------------------------------------------------------

People return from the big cities like Tokyo and Osaka to ther

own hometowns in the countryside for about a week.

----------------------------------------------------------------------


この文には、from the big cities という前置詞句があります。

これは「大都市からの」と形容詞句としての訳と、「大都市から」と副詞句と
しての訳のふたつの可能性があります。

もしこの文が people from the big cities と、前に「人々」という名詞が
来れば、「大都市からの人々」という形容詞句としての意味になります。

この文のように、return from the big cities と、前に「帰る」という動詞
がある場合には「大都市から帰る」という副詞句としての意味になります。



前置詞句はこのように、その前の語句の意味がわかってなければ、それが
形容詞句か副詞句かを決定することができません。

これはつまり、語順としてその前にある語句を先に訳しておかなければ、後の
語句の意味を正しく判断することができない、ということなんです。

SIM同時通訳方式で、英語を「英語の語順」で頭から理解しなければならな
い理由はここにあるんですね。


…ここまでが前回の内容でした。

さて、その続きです。


ここまでの説明で、英語を「英語の語順」で頭から理解する「SIM同時通訳
方式」は、単に「返り読み」をしないので理解するスピードが早くなる」とい
った功利的なものでないことがわかるでしょう。

つまりこれは、英語の本質から生まれたものなのです。

英語は後半の語句から先に訳するなど出来ない言語なのです。

なぜなら、今までの例で、「返り読み」で前置詞句を先に訳そうと試みても、
その前置詞句が、形容詞句として使われているのか、副詞句として使われて
いるのか、判断することができないからです。

この究極の文法である「目に見えない英文法」がわかるには、SIM同時通訳
方式で訳をすることが大前提なのです。

この意味で、「目に見えない英文法」はSIM同時通訳方式でなければ判らな
いという論理的な関係があるのですね。

では、今日の説明の最後に、前記の英文をSIM同時通訳方式で訳してみまし
ょう。


----------------------------------------------------------------------

People return…
   人々は帰ってくる

     from the big cities…
      大都市から
 
      like Tokyo and Osaka…
       東京・大阪のような
 
        to ther own hometowns in the countryside…
          田舎の彼ら自身の故郷へ

             for about a week.
およそ一週間。


----------------------------------------------------------------------

   … この続きは、また次回のお楽しみ …
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-18 16:00 | SIMうんちく

No.166 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Murder of Russian Journalist Prompts Widespread Reaction
--------------------------------------

The funeral of Anna Politkovskaya attracted thousands of people who wanted to pay tribute to the most outspoken critic of the Kremlin's actions in Chechnya, and now the 13th Russian journalist murdered during President Vladimir Putin's administration.

A mother of two, she often traveled to the breakaway republic where she reported on the cases of kidnapping, torture and other atrocities she blamed on the Russian military and the Moscow-backed government in Chechnya.

Politkovskaya was murdered in her apartment building in Moscow on Saturday evening. The killer ambushed her in the elevator, fired four shots from a silenced Makarov pistol and fled.A surveillance camera captured an image of a man leaving the building after the shooting, but no further details on his identity or motives were released.

And few of those who queued up to buy a special edition of Novaya Gazeta on Monday, the publication Politkovskaya worked for, said they believe the case will be resolved any time soon.

Politkovskaya’s colleague, Galina Murzalieva, said that in a recent radio interview, Politkovskaya said she was investigating a case of alleged kidnapping, torture and murder perpetrated by Chechnya's Prime Minister Ramzan Kadyrov and his personal army of heavily armed fighters."She said she had two photographs which show the tortures that Kadyrov's regime perpetrates in Chechnya. The story on this she was supposed to file on the day of her death."

Shortly after the killing, Prime Minister Kadyrov denied there was any Chechen involvement into the case and expressed regret over the death of the reporter.

The newspaper announced a reward of more than one million dollars for information that could help find the killer and said it will conduct its own investigation into the case.

In the course of her career, Anna Politkovskaya had made many enemies - but she was so prominent that few believed anything could happen to her, including Tatiana Lokshina of Demos."As a journalist who worked on Chechnya, on this very sensitive topic, she was frequently receiving threats.But she was working for such a long time and publishing such powerful stories and taking so many risks, that after a certain point we all started thinking that she is so much of an icon that nothing can ever happen to her, it would be too scandalous. And we were wrong, I am afraid, very tragically wrong."

According to the New-York-based Committee to Protect Journalists, Politkovskaya was at least the 43rd journalist killed for her work in Russia since 1993. Most of the murder cases remain unsolved.

And although Politkovskaya's death has provoked a reaction around the world, no one from the Russian government attended her funeral.

Anya Ardayeva for VOA, Moscow.
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-18 11:33 | オリジナル英文

No.166 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Murder of Russian Journalist Prompts Widespread Reaction
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
The funeral of Anna Politkovskaya attracted thousands of people

who wanted to pay tribute to the most outspoken critic

of the Kremlin's actions in Chechnya,

and now the 13th Russian journalist

murdered during President Vladimir Putin's administration.

A mother of two, she often traveled to the breakaway republic

where she reported on the cases of kidnapping, torture and other atrocities

she blamed on the Russian military
  
and the Moscow-backed government in Chechnya.

Politkovskaya was murdered

in her apartment building in Moscow on Saturday evening.

The killer ambushed her in the elevator,

fired four shots from a silenced Makarov pistol and fled.

A surveillance camera captured an image of a man

leaving the building after the shooting,

but no further details on his identity or motives were released.

And few of those who queued up

to buy a special edition of Novaya Gazeta on Monday,

the publication Politkovskaya worked for,

said they believe the case will be resolved any time soon.

Politkovskaya’s colleague, Galina Murzalieva, said

that in a recent radio interview, Politkovskaya said

she was investigating a case of alleged kidnapping, torture and murder

perpetrated by Chechnya's Prime Minister Ramzan Kadyrov

and his personal army of heavily armed fighters.

"She said she had two photographs which show the tortures

that Kadyrov's regime perpetrates in Chechnya.

The story on this she was supposed to file

on the day of her death."

Shortly after the killing, Prime Minister Kadyrov denied

there was any Chechen involvement into the case

and expressed regret over the death of the reporter.

The newspaper announced a reward of more than one million dollars

for information that could help find the killer

and said it will conduct its own investigation into the case.

In the course of her career, Anna Politkovskaya had made many enemies

- but she was so prominent

that few believed anything could happen to her,

including Tatiana Lokshina of Demos.

"As a journalist who worked on Chechnya,

on this very sensitive topic,

she was frequently receiving threats.

But she was working for such a long time

and publishing such powerful stories and taking so many risks,

that after a certain point we all started thinking

that she is so much of an icon that nothing can ever happen to her,

it would be too scandalous.

And we were wrong, I am afraid, very tragically wrong."

According to the New-York-based Committee to Protect Journalists,

Politkovskaya was at least the 43rd journalist

killed for her work in Russia since 1993.

Most of the murder cases remain unsolved.

And although Politkovskaya's death has provoked a reaction around
the world,

no one from the Russian government attended her funeral.

Anya Ardayeva for VOA, Moscow.
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-18 11:32 | SIM音読用英文

世界平和と家庭の平和

今日のトピックは米国の銃社会の問題でした。

巻頭言でも触れましたが、人間はどうして相手との断絶で自分を守ろうとする
のでしょうか。

武器の最終目的は相手の殺戮であり、それは相手との究極の断絶を意味します。

しかし、私たちには言葉があり、その言葉によって対話をはかることができま
す。

対話は断絶の反対、つまり相手に歩み寄ることです。

私たち人間は、対話によって誤解を解消し、妥協点をさぐり、解決の糸口を見
いだすことができます。

そのためには、より良いコミュニケーション能力が不可欠だと思います。



母国語以外の言語の習得も、巻頭言に書いたとおり、コミュニケーション能力
向上の具体的な手段だと思います。

しかし、そもそも私たちのコミュニケーションのルーツはどこにあるかという
と、それは母親と赤ちゃんとの関係だと思うんです。

赤ちゃんは、母親の愛に溢れたまなざし、優しい言葉、スキンシップによって
最初の他者とのコミュニケーションをスタートします。

この部分に問題があれば正常なコミュニケーション能力は身に付きません。

犯罪者の多くは母子関係に問題があったと言われます。

ところが、最初のコミュニケーションの糸口である母子関係は何も犯罪問題だ
けにとどまりません。

それは最終的に国と国との信頼関係にまで影響を及ぼすと私には思えるんです。

つまり世界平和実現のためには、まず母子の間に平和があること、すなわち私
たちひとりびとりの家庭に平和があることが不可欠なのではないでしょうか。
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-12 15:23 | 編集後記

SIM方式の英文法 その23

~ 目に見えない英文法 補足4 ~


お待ちかね、「目に見えない英文法」シリーズです。

今回は、今まで書いてきた「目に見えない英文法」が、SIM同時通訳方式と
どのようにかかわっているかについてお話しします。



今まで何度も言いましたが、学校では「文法がわかれば英語がわかる」という
ように教えられています。

ですから、文法を覚えることがまず英語の勉強である、と一般に考えられてき
ました。

確かに、初歩的な段階では、まず「目に見える英文法」、つまり形から判断で
きる英文法を覚えることには意味があります。

この点では「文法は暗記物である」という主張が間違っているわけではありま
せん。

それはたとえば、不定詞であるとか、前置詞句、現在完了形、動詞の~ing型
などですね。

これは、外見でわかる文法事項ですから、暗記すれば良いのです。



しかし、実はそれだけでは英文法は成り立ちません。

つまり、「目に見える英文法」をマスターしただけでは、まだ文法をマスター
したとは言えないのです。むしろ「目に見えない英文法」が重要なのです。

これがきちんとわかると、英文法の本質も自然にわかってきます。

次の例文を見てください。


---------------------------------------------------------------------

People return from the big cities like Tokyo and Osaka to ther

own hometowns in the countryside for about a week.

---------------------------------------------------------------------


この文には前置詞句がいくつあるでしょうか?


…答は、5個です。


ちょっと抜き出してみましょう。



from the big cities

  like Tokyo and Osaka

  to ther own hometowns

  in the countryside

  for about a week.



さて、この5個の前置詞句のうち、どれが形容詞句で、どれが副詞句か、見た
だけで判断できるでしょうか。

まず、1番目の前置詞句 from the big cities から見てみましょう。

これは「大都市からの」と形容詞句としての訳と、「大都市から」と副詞句と
しての訳のふたつの可能性があります。



もしこの文が people from the big cities と、前に「人々」という名詞が
来れば、「大都市からの人々」という形容詞句としての意味になります。

この文のように、return from the big cities と、前に「帰る」という動詞
がある場合には「大都市から帰る」という副詞句としての意味です。



したがって、これまで何度も言いましたが、前置詞句はその前の語句の意味が
わかってなければ、それが形容詞句か副詞句かを決定することができません。

これはつまり、語順としてその前にある語句を先に訳しておかなければ、後の
語句の意味を正しく判断することができない、ということなんです。

SIM同時通訳方式で、英語を「英語の語順」で頭から理解しなければならな
い理由はここにあるんですね。



    … この続きは、また次回のお楽しみ …
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-11 15:48 | SIMうんちく

No.165 オリジナル英文

--------------------------------------
Gun Control Debate Resurfaces in Wake of Deadly US School Shootings
--------------------------------------

In less than a week, a total of six students across the United States have been shot and killed.Five girls between the ages of 13 and 7 died after a stranger seized their one-room schoolhouse in a remote area of Pennsylvania.

Just days earlier, a female high school student in Colorado was killed after a homeless man took her and several classmates hostage.

Between those two incidents, a principal at a small Wisconsin high school was gunned down by a 15-year-old student.

Paul Helmke, president of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, says the incidents are proof the entire nation can be affected by gun violence."And for too long, folks have turned basically a blind eye to some of the shootings if they occur in the poorer part of town, or the other part of town,, or felt that it only happened in the big city, or people of a different color or a different class.These recent shootings, certainly tragic, part of what they do is they bring home that this is happening every day at some level in America."

The Brady Campaign is one of many groups, which have advocated for stronger gun control laws in the United States.

In the 1990s, they successfully pushed for laws that require a waiting period and background check for potential gun buyers, and a ban on assault weapons.

But Helmke says their efforts have gotten more difficult in recent years."If anything, we've gone backwards, we've let the assault weapons ban expire in 2004.We constantly are fighting legislation that would make it harder to crack down on gun dealers, that would make it impossible to find out where the guns that are used illegally come from."

They have also come up against many groups, such as the National Rifle Association, which believe more gun control laws would violate the second amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gives citizens the right to keep and bear arms.

Connie Hair, a spokeswoman for the Second Amendment Sisters, says this is more than just a basic American right."Well, the Second Amendment to the Bill of Rights guarantees us the right to defend ourselves, and we're protecting the Second Amendment, you have a right to defend yourself.And if you regulate weapons by taking them away from everyone, only the bad guys will have weapons.

So you just have a fundamental right to defend yourself. "

President Bush has convened a meeting of leading experts at the White House next week to determine how best the federal government can help states and local governments improve school safety.

Richard Green, VOA News.
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-11 15:46 | オリジナル英文

No.165 SIM音読用英文

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
Gun Control Debate Resurfaces in Wake of Deadly US School Shootings
━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
In less than a week,

a total of six students across the United States have been shot
and killed.

Five girls between the ages of 13 and 7 died

after a stranger seized their one-room schoolhouse

in a remote area of Pennsylvania.

Just days earlier, a female high school student in Colorado
was killed

after a homeless man took her and several classmates hostage.

Between those two incidents,

a principal at a small Wisconsin high school was gunned down

by a 15-year-old student.

Paul Helmke, president of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence,

says the incidents are proof

the entire nation can be affected by gun violence.

"And for too long, folks have turned basically a blind eye to some
of the shootings

if they occur in the poorer part of town, or the other part of town,,

or felt that it only happened in the big city,

or people of a different color or a different class.

These recent shootings, certainly tragic,

part of what they do is they bring home

that this is happening every day at some level in America."

The Brady Campaign is one of many groups,

which have advocated for stronger gun control laws in the United States.

In the 1990s, they successfully pushed for laws

that require a waiting period and background check for potential gun buyers,

and a ban on assault weapons.

But Helmke says their efforts have gotten more difficult in recent years.

"If anything, we've gone backwards,

we've let the assault weapons ban expire in 2004.

We constantly are fighting legislation
      
that would make it harder to crack down on gun dealers,

that would make it impossible to find out

where the guns that are used illegally come from."
        
They have also come up against many groups,

such as the National Rifle Association,

which believe more gun control laws would violate

the second amendment to the U.S. Constitution,

which gives citizens the right to keep and bear arms.

Connie Hair, a spokeswoman for the Second Amendment Sisters, says

this is more than just a basic American right.

"Well, the Second Amendment to the Bill of Rights guarantees us

the right to defend ourselves,

and we're protecting the Second Amendment,

you have a right to defend yourself.

And if you regulate weapons by taking them away from everyone,

only the bad guys will have weapons.

So you just have a fundamental right to defend yourself. "

President Bush has convened a meeting of leading experts

at the White House next week

to determine how best the federal government can help

states and local governments improve school safety.

Richard Green, VOA News.
(Material is provided courtesy of voanews.com.)
[PR]
by danueno | 2006-10-11 15:43 | SIM音読用英文